Objective To investigate mosquito population variation in Jiangsu province, China from 2008 to 2018, and to provide a basis for mosquito control in Jiangsu province. Methods We collected adult mosquito surveillance data obtained using the lamp trapping method at provincial surveillance sites in Jiangsu from 2008 to 2018 to analyze mosquito population variation in urban and rural areas in Jiangsu. The pairwise Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mosquito density in urban areas, rural areas, and the whole province in Jiangsu from 2008 to 2018 was 7.53, 61.26, and 28.26 mosquitoes/light·night, respectively; in general, the annual mosquito density showed an increasing trend in urban areas, but a decreasing trend in rural areas and the whole province. In the three types of habitats in urban areas, i.e., residential areas, parks, and hospitals, parks were dominant habitats; in the two types of habitats in rural areas, i.e., civilian residences and livestock sheds, livestock sheds were dominant habitats, which were also absolutely dominant habitats among the five types of habitats mentioned above, with a mosquito density over seven times that in other four types of habitats. In the 11 years, the pooled mosquito density by month showed a single-peak variation in urban areas, rural areas, and the whole province, with a peak density in July (17.81, 235.23, and 101.95 mosquitoes/light·night, respectively, for the above three areas); in mosquito seasons, the mosquito density by month in rural areas was 1.50-13.20 times that in urban areas. The composition of mosquito populations in Jiangsu province was mainly Culex pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, An. lesteri, and Armigeres subalbatus; Cx. pipiens pallens was the absolutely dominant species in urban areas; in rural areas and the whole province, the dominant species was Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in most of the 11 years and was Cx. pipiens pallens in the other few years. In most of the 11 years, the density of Cx. pipiens pallens in rural areas was about 2 times that in urban areas, with a significant difference between the two (χ2=15.783, P<0.01); in each of the 11 years, the density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in rural areas was over 10 times that in urban areas, with a significant difference between the two (χ2=15.783, P <0.01); the density of the two dominant species showed a single-peak seasonal variation, with a peak density in July. Except for the dominant species, the pooled density by month of other four species was higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion Remarkable achievements have been made in mosquito control in rural areas in Jiangsu province, while more efforts are needed in urban areas. The focus of mosquito control in rural areas should be livestock sheds and dominant mosquito species; effective surveillance of Ae. albopictus and Ar. subalbatus remains to be pushed forward. The pooled mosquito densities by year and month over the 11 years can provide a preliminary reference for the initiation of mosquito control in Jiangsu province.