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Reported cases of vector-borne diseases in China, 2005-2020: Epidemic trend, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies
LIU Qi-yong
Abstract788)      PDF (3128KB)(1762)      
Objective To analyze the data of reported cases of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in China in 2005-2020, and to investigate the epidemic characteristics and trend of VBDs, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies. Methods The descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the data of reported cases of VBDs in China in 2005-2020, and the challenges in prevention and control and related coping strategies were determined based on the epidemic characteristics of VBDs, current policies, and related literature domestic and abroad. Results A total of 905 092 cases of 14 VBDs were reported in China in 2005-2020, among which malaria, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) accounted for 66.94%, the ten notifiable VBDs accounted for 76.01%. A total of 5 076 death cases were reported, among which the death cases due to Japanese encephalitis (JE), HFRS, severe fever with thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS), and malaria accounted for 93.26%. The incidence of VBDs fluctuated and decreased in 2005-2020. The number of cases showed two significant peaks in 2006 and 2014-2015. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed a significant trend of reduction in JE, malaria, typhus, and leptospirosis ( P<0.01) and a significant trend of increase in SFTS and scrub typhus ( P<0.01). At the same time, the incidence of VBDs showed marked seasonality with a peak in October. About 2 165 districts/counties reported VBDs annually, mainly in the east of the Heihe-Tengchong line. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed that the number of districts/counties reporting such cases tended to increase with no significance ( P=0.367). Over the past 16 years, the number of cases of vector-borne diseases tended to decrease in northeast China, while this number tended to increase in southwest China. Different diseases had different ages of onset, and the peak age of onset of VBDs was 20-44 years. The male population tended to have a higher incidence rate than the female population. Conclusion The number of cases of VBDs tends to decrease with fluctuation in China, but it still remains at a relatively high level, and the epidemic area tends to expand, with continuous increases in the incidence rate or mortality rate of some VBDs. As for the new challenges in the control of VBDs, it is necessary to implement related strategies and measures including the integrated vector management and sustainable vector management, so as to further reduce the morbidity and mortality of VBDs and achieve the targets and goals of Health China and Global Vector Control Strategies.
2022, 33 (1): 1-7.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.001
Epidemiological and cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, 2013-2020
WEI Chun, GUO Xiao-lian, YANG Rui, TANG Ye-rong, YUE Yu-juan, LIU Xiao-bo, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract352)      PDF (1445KB)(1695)      
Objective To investigate the epidemiological and spatial cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for the formulation and improvement of targeted prevention and control measures in future. Methods The data of dengue cases in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Software ArcMap 10.7 was used to plot the geographical distribution, and software SaTScan v9.3 was used to analyze the spatial clustering. Results A total of 14 031 dengue cases were reported in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020, including 11 505 indigenous cases, 2 507 overseas imported cases, and 19 cases imported from other provinces. The epidemic showed a "zigzag" increase. The overall spatial scan statistics detected two class I clusters in Jinghong city (log-likelihood ratio[LLR]=22 647.97) and Ruili city (LLR=10 125.08), and two class II clusters in Mengla county (LLR=1 167.76) and Gengma county (LLR=1 061.22). Class I clusters were detected in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019. The indigenous cases were found in 10 border counties. The overseas imported cases were mainly from southeast Asian countries and African countries, and Myanmar, Cambodia, and Laos were the main source countries. The reported cases were mainly imported in the first half of the year and were mainly indigenous in the second half of the year. The number of cases began to increase in July, peaked in August to October, and began to decline in November. Among the 14 031 dengue cases, the male/female ratio was 1:0.88, and 79.78% of the cases were aged from 15 to 60 years. The top five occupations in terms of incidence were business services (20.95%), farmers (20.52%), unemployed people (11.17%), retired people (8.97%), and students (7.31%). Conclusion The situation of dengue fever in Yunnan province is serious. It is urgent to do a good job in the control and management of imported cases and the monitoring and control of vector Aedes, thus providing guarantee for sustainable control of dengue fever.
2021, 32 (6): 720-724.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.06.013
Study on the lethal rate of six active ingredients to Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana
TANG Li-ping, ZHU Jian, LIAO Guo-dong, WU Ying-hua
Abstract1392)      PDF (749KB)(1691)      
Objective To test and compare the speed of death of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana treated with six active ingredients, and to provide theoretical basis for consumers' experience. Methods Using the open square box method, 30 test insects were starved for one day had allowed access to cockroach baits containing each of the six effective components. The number of dead insects was counted at regular time intervals, and LT 50 and LT 95 were calculated according to the weighted linear regression method. Results Without other feed, the LT 50 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>1.5% propoxur>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb, and the order of the LT 50 for P. americana was 2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>1.5% propoxur>0.1% indoxacarb. The LT 95 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur, and the LT 95 for P. americana was in the order of 0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.05% fipronil>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur>2.5% imidacloprid. Dinotefuran had almost no toxic effect on P. americana. Cockroaches fed less on the diets of dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur, which had a faster death rate in the early stage, and fed more on the diets of chlorpyrifos, fipronil and indoxacarb, which had a slower death rate in the early stage. Conclusion On the whole, cockroach baits with different active ingredients had different lethal rates to different species of cockroaches. Dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur were quicker to kill B. germanica, while chlorpyrifos and fipronil were quicker to kill P. americana.
2022, 33 (3): 340-345.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.03.005
Catalogue of major invasive alien vectors and pathogens in China (2023 version)
LIANG Ying, XU Ye, YIN Ying-xuan, LI Xue-rong, MAO Fan-zhen, DAI Yang, LI Hong-yun, LI Chao, MA De-long, ZHOU Ruo-bing, WEI Xiao-hui, WANG Xiao-xu, JI Hao-qiang, YUE Yu-juan, HOU Xue-xin, LI Ming-hui, LI Zhen-jun, CAI Hui-ling, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract1457)      PDF (1007KB)(1490)      
Objective To formulate a catalogue of alien vectors and pathogenic organisms for early warning and effective prevention of alien species invasion. Methods The authors searched literature, online databases, and published catalogues for alien vectors and pathogens that can seriously threaten the health of human and animals and agricultural and ecological security. They were evaluated for the risk of invasion to China by using a suitable habitat prediction model and a comprehensive evaluation system of multiple indicators. Candidate species with the potential of invasion were included in this catalogue. Results A total of 304 alien species were screened out and listed in this catalogue for China, including 69 vectors and 235 pathogenic organisms. Among them, 275 species (47 vectors and 228 pathogens) had high probability of invading China. Conclusion This catalogue can be used as an early warning directory to prevent alien vectors and pathogenic organisms from invading China, which provides a reference for relevant departments to formulate preventive management strategies and measures.
2023, 34 (2): 129-136.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.001
Ecological investigation of Aedes vector in 12 provinces of China in 2020-2021
LIU Xiao-bo, YUE Yu-juan, JIA Qing-chen, ZHAO Ning, GUO Yu-hong, ZHAO Chun-chun, LIANG Ying, WANG Jun, WU Hai-xia, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract507)      PDF (1214KB)(1366)      
Objective To analyze the ecological surveillance results of Aedes vector in 12 provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities) in China in 2020-2021, and to provide a scientific basis for risk assessment, prediction, early warning, and control of Aedes-borne diseases. Methods The surveillance data of larval and adult Aedes densities at the special investigation sites of Aedes vector in 12 provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities) in China were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. Results In 2020-2021, the mean Breteau index (BI) was >10.00 in Hainan, Zhejiang, and Hunan provinces and >5.00 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi) and Yunnan, Henan, and Shandong provinces. The mean mosq-ovitrap index (MOI) was >5.00 in Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, and Shandong. The mean net trap index was ≥2.00 mosquitoes/net·hour in Henan, Hubei, and Shandong and >1.00 mosquito/net·hour in Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan, Fujian, and Hunan. There were no statistical differences in BI, MOI, and net trap index between class I provinces (Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Fujian, Yunnan, and Zhejiang) and other classes of provinces ( t=0.766, 1.030, and -0.745, all P>0.05). The mean BI in 2020-2021 was higher than that in 2017-2019 in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Shandong, but lower than that in the three years in other provinces. The Aedes vector was found to be active throughout the year at the investigation sites in Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Yunnan, from March to December in Fujian, Zhejiang, and Hubei, and from April to November in Chongqing municipality, Shandong and Henan, and from April to December in Jiangxi. The results of BI and MOI were inconsistent in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hubei. During the study period, the BI of Aedes vector was >5.00 in areas where dengue outbreaks and local cases occurred, and >10.00 in Ruili city in Yunnan, Cenxi city of Wuzhou in Guangxi, and Sanjiao town of Zhongshan in Guangdong; the net trap index in Cenxi city of Guangxi was >2.00 mosquitoes/net·hour. Conclusion In 2020-2021, the mean Aedes density in the provinces with local cases of dengue fever in China was high, with spatio-temporal heterogeneity among different regions. It is suggested that in the local transmission areas of dengue in China, it is necessary to adjust moderately annual surveillance periods, to continuously strengthen Aedes vector surveillance and risk assessment, and to systematically sort out the ecological investigation results of Aedes vector, so as to provide a scientific basis for the revision and improvement of Aedes vector surveillance scheme and the outbreak control of Aedes-borne diseases in China.
2022, 33 (1): 8-15.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.002
National surveillance report on rodent-borne pathogens of disease vectors in 2021
National Vector Surveillance System, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Abstract685)      PDF (892KB)(1353)      
In 2021, the national surveillance of rodent-borne pathogens of disease vectors had been started up, and a total of 123 prefectures were selected as national surveillance sites. Sampling was completed at 95 surveillance sites. A total of 17 910 rodent specimens were collected, and 16 891 of them were tested. The completion rate of pathogen detection was 94.31%. The overall infection rate of eight monitored rodent-borne pathogens around China was 2.43% (407/16 716) for Hantavirus, 0.02% (4/16 154) for Dabie bandavirus (i.e., severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus), 5.75% (624/10 850) for Leptospira interrogans, 0.11% (5/4 470) for Rickettsia mooseri, 0.05% (5/10 790) for Orientia tsutsugamushi, 2.39% (75/3 136) for Bartonella, and 0.04% (2/5 075) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Francisella tularensis was not detected. More than ten species of rodents were found to be infected with different pathogens in 18 provinces across China. The infection rates of pathogens in rodents in southern regions were relatively high, and the positive rates of pathogens carried by various rodents differed. Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus agrarius were the species in which the most pathogens were detected.
2023, 34 (1): 1-8.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.001
Advances and achievements in the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China,2012-2021
LIU Qi-yong, LIU Xiao-bo, CHANG Nan, ZHANG Lu
Abstract867)      PDF (1117KB)(1333)      
Objective To analyze the policies,strategies,techniques,actions,and achievements in the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China since 2012. Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze and summarize the epidemiologic situation and challenges of vectors and vector-borne diseases,the surveillance of vectors,and the advances in the control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China in the past ten years.The Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the trend of the incidence rate of vector-borne diseases in the past decade using R 4.0.4 software. Results A series of policies,strategies,measures,and techniques were formulated and released for sustainable vector management in China in the past decade.The vector surveillance program in China had been continuously upgraded and improved,and a national vector surveillance network integrating ecology,etiology,and insecticide resistance had been established and improved.The number of national vector surveillance sites (1 097) in 2021 was increased by 54 times,and the funds input in national vector surveillance was increased by 127 times.Direct network reporting was realized for surveillance data,and there was a significant increase in the timely utilization rate of surveillance data,which provided better support for risk assessment,prediction and early warning,decision making,and control effect evaluation.The total annual incidence rate of vector-borne diseases in China in 2021(3.060/100 000) was reduced by 8.66% compared with that in 2007-2011(3.350/100 000),and the total annual mortality rate of vector-borne diseases in 2021(0.016/100 000) was reduced by 33.33% compared with that in 2007-2011(0.024/100 000).China had achieved the goal of malaria elimination and mitigated the accelerating increases in the incidence rates of dengue fever,scrub typhus,and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Conclusion In 2012-2021,leapfrog development has been achieved for the policies,strategies,techniques,and actions for the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China,and there are significant reductions in the incidence and mortality rates of vector-borne diseases.In view of the natural and social driving factors at present,the prevention and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases still face severe challenges,and therefore,it is urgent to further promote the strategies and measures for sustainable vector management,implement Global Vector Control Response 2017-2030,build proactive defense based on"reverse microbial etiology",so as to prevent and control major vector-borne diseases.
2022, 33 (5): 613-621.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.05.001
A collection directory and one new species of the genus Atrichopogon (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Jiangxi province, China
LIU Yang-qing, YU Yi-xin, CHEN Hai-ying
Abstract296)      PDF (1133KB)(1289)      
Objective To investigate the species and distribution of the genus Atrichopogon in Jiangxi province, China, and to provide basic data for the biological research of Atrichopogon in this area. Methods The netting and light trapping methods were used to collect midges from 2008 to 2017. Results A total of 16 species belonging to 5 subgenera from the genus Atrichopogon were identified. Atrichopogon formosanus, A. spartos, and A. pileolus were the widely distributed species in Jiangxi province. One new species from the genus Atrichopogon was reported, which was named as A. ( Psilokempia) ruijinensis, sp. nov., and its morphological characteristics were described. The type specimens of the new species were deposited at Nanchang Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Nanchang 330038). Conclusion With the deepening of taxonomic research and investigation, more species from the genus Atrichopogon will be discovered in Jiangxi province.
2021, 32 (4): 461-463.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.04.015
Investigation of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in some regions of Guizhou province, China, 2019
YAN Dong-ming, WANG Wen-zhou, WANG Xue-shuang, LIU Qiang, WU Xing-bin, ZHAO Ning, LIANG Wen-qin, ZHOU Jing-zhu, WANG Dan, WANG Jun, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract388)      PDF (1268KB)(1286)      
Objective To investigate the mosquito species and the distribution of mosquito-borne viruses in some regions of Guizhou province, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Methods Mosquitoes collected with trapping lamps were identified, mosquito-borne viruses were identified by molecular biological methods, and a phylogenetic tree of virus strains was constructed using bioinformatics software. Results A total of 27 169 mosquitoes (9 species, 3 genera) were collected in Zhongchao town of Liping county and Yangchang town of Wudang district (Guiyang city) of Guizhou province in June 2019. The dominant species was Anopheles sinensis (13 712/27 169,50.47%), followed by Culex tritaeniorhynchus (12 444/27 169,45.80%) and other species (70/27 169,0.26%). A virus strain isolated from a mosquito sample (LK6110) from Zhongchao town was identified as Japanese encephalitis virus genotype Ⅲ (JEV Ⅲ). Conclusion In this investigation, Yangchang town was dominated by An. sinensis and Zhongchao town was dominated by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and JEV Ⅲ was isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Zhongchao town.
2021, 32 (4): 422-427.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.04.007
An analysis of research advances and hot spots of dengue fever in China, 2011-2021 based on CNKI
WANG Yan-ding, LI Zhi-qiang, WU Di, GONG Xin-ran, YANG Mei-tao, ZHNAG Wen-yi, WANG Yong
Abstract383)      PDF (1671KB)(1275)      
Objective To analyze the historical development and future hot spots of dengue fever research in China, and to provide a basis and reference for research, prevention and control of dengue fever in China. Methods Data were obtained from China National Knowledge Infrastructure database; "dengue fever" and "dengue virus" were used as subject terms for the search of dengue fever-related references collected (from January 1, 2011 to April 10, 2021) in the database; a total of 1 738 references were retrieved and 1 394 references were included. Excel 2019 and CiteSpace 5.6.R5 softwares were used for analysis of the 1 394 references by authors, journals, and institutions; meanwhile, visual analysis and evolution were performed on the key words, burst terms, and timelines for the development of dengue fever-related research in China. Results During 2011-2021, the number of publications on dengue fever in China could be divided into three phases with an overall upward trend (2011-2013, 2014-2016, and 2017-2021); main publication institutions were centers for disease control and prevention, universities, and research institutes; hot spots in the field of dengue fever were dengue virus, Aedes albopictus, epidemiology, and surveillance. Conclusion In recent years, there is a growing trend of performing dengue fever-related research in China, while many challenges still exist. Governments and health authorities in high-risk areas should arouse the awareness of dengue fever among common populations; research personnel should focus on the treatment, prevention and control strategies, and risk assessment of the disease, and perform in-depth studies on the surveillance, early warning, and the cost-effectiveness in prevention and control of dengue fever.
2022, 33 (1): 114-119.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.021
Ticks species, distribution and pathogens in Shanghai, China
WEI Zi-xin, FANG Yuan, ZHANG Yi
Abstract560)      PDF (1296KB)(1247)      
Objective To investigate the species composition and distribution of ticks and the pathogens carried by the ticks in Shanghai, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing local prevention and treatment measures for ticks and tick-borne diseases. Methods The four commonly used English and Chinese databases of CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, and PubMed were used to collect the articles on tick in Shanghai in the past twenty years (2000-2020), and related information was extracted to analyze the species and distribution of ticks and the pathogens carried by them at different investigation sites in Shanghai. Results The tick species reported in Shanghai were Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. campanulata, H. flava, and Amblyomma varanense, among which R. sanguineus was the most common and widely distributed tick species in Shanghai, followed by H. longicornis. The host animals for tick mainly included dogs, sheep, and rodents. Pathogens including Ehrlichia, Babesia, Coxiella, spirochete, and Brucella were detected in the tick species distributed in Shanghai. Conclusion Various tick species are observed in Shanghai, and multiple pathogens are detected, suggesting that there is a potential risk of the transmission of tick-borne diseases.
2022, 33 (1): 120-124.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.022
Prediction of suitable habitat distribution of Elizabethkingia anophelis in the world and China under climate change
WEI Xiao-hui, WANG Xiao-xu, JI Hao-qiang, LIANG Ying, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract250)      PDF (8757KB)(1227)      
Objective To determine the current and future suitable areas of Elizabethkingia anophelis, and to provide a reference for preventing its outbreak and spread in China. Methods With 21 pieces of information on the geographical distribution of E. anophelis and data on 56 climatic factors, a MaxEnt model was used to estimate the suitable areas of E. anophelis in the world and China. R 4.2.2 software was used to adjust model parameters, and construct the receiver operating characteristic curve. The area under the curve was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the model. The results were visualized using ArcGIS 10.5 software. Results Annual precipitation (bio12, 27.0%) and the minimum temperature in January (tmin01, 22.2%) contributed most to the distribution of E. anophelis. Under current climatic conditions, the highly suitable areas for E. anophelis were mainly distributed in the southeastern United States, northern South America, western Europe, central Africa, and parts of southeastern Asia; in China, they were mainly distributed in the wet regions south of the Qinling-Huaihe Line. Under future climatic conditions, climate changes of varying intensities generally promoted the suitable areas of E. anophelis in the world and China, especially under high radiative forcing. Conclusions There are large suitable areas for E. anophelis in the world and China under both current and future climate conditions, which are expected to be promoted with the change of climate in the future. Authorities should take measures to control greenhouse gas emissions to limit the increase of E. anophelis’ suitable areas. Provinces with its highly suitable areas should strengthen surveillance, risk assessment and response.
2023, 34 (2): 165-175.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.005
Anopheles vector control strategy and technology for eliminating the malaria in China
LIU Qi-yong, LIU Xiao-bo
Abstract446)      PDF (972KB)(1191)      

Malaria is a major vector-borne disease transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquito,which has caused a heavy disease, economical and social burden to China. After long-term effective malaria control and elimination actions,China was officially granted a malaria-free certification by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 30, 2021. From "Eliminate the four pests to prevent diseases" initiated by the Patriotic Health Campaign Committee in the early years of the founding of the people’s Republic of China,to the integrated mosquito management strategy in the 1980s, to the sustainable vector management proposed in 2004,and then to Anopheles control of the epidemic spot in the stage of malaria elimination,the Anopheles control strategies and techniques in China have been evolved and innovated with stratified sustainable Anopheles control in the past 70 years,which has played a key role in malaria elimination in China. At present,there are still severe challenges and great pressure in controlling the risk of re-transmission caused by malaria importation and maintaining the malaria-free in China. It is necessary to continue to carry out sustainable control of Anopheles in China,and share the stratified sustainable Anopheles control strategies and practical experience for actively participating in the global action to eliminate malaria,so as to contribute Chinese efforts to realizing the vision of a Malaria-Free world and a community of common health for mankind.

2021, 32 (5): 513-518.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.05.002
Gene polymorphisms of Bartonella species in small mammals in Maixiu National Forest Park in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
RAO Hua-xiang, YU Juan, LI Shou-jiang, SONG Xiu-ping, LI Dong-mei
Abstract268)      PDF (925KB)(1181)      
Objective To investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infection and gene polymorphisms of Bartonella in small mammals in Maixiu National Forest Park in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and to provide a scientific basis for the control and prevention of local natural focal diseases. Methods The night trapping method was used to capture small mammals, whose liver and spleen tissues were collected and cultured for Bartonella isolation. The suspected positive colonies were confirmed using PCR amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase ( gltA) gene. BLAST and MEGA 7.0 softwares were used to perform the nucleotide sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis, and DnaSP 5.10 software was used to analyze the genetic diversity. Results A total of 21 rodents were captured, including 10 Cricetulus longicaudatus rodents, 6 Apodemus speciosus rodents, 4 Mus musculus rodents, and 1 Microtus oeconomus rodent. In addition, one small mammal of Soricidea, which belonged to Insectivora, was also captured. Except M. oeconomus, Bartonella was detected in all the other four species of small mammals, with an overall positive rate of 59.09% (13/22). Specifically, nine cases showed positive results in both the liver and spleen tissues, one showed positive results in the liver tissue alone, and three showed positive results in the spleen tissue alone. There was no statistical difference in the positive rate between liver and spleen tissues (45.45% vs 54.55%, P=0.625). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated Bartonella species were as follows: Bartonella grahamii (10 strains), B. taylorii (1 strain), B. khabarovsk (1 strain), and B. japonica (1 strain), among which B. grahamii was the dominant prevalent species with potential pathogenicity. In addition, the traceability analysis showed that the B. grahamii isolates from C. longicaudatus and M. musculus belonged to the same cluster as those from A. speciosus in Japan, and the B. grahamii isolates from A. speciosus belonged to the same cluster as those from Ochotona curzoniae in this area. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the nucleotide sequences in B. grahamii were quite different between various rodent species. There were 8 polymorphic loci in the 10 sequences, resulting in 3 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.622±0.138; the average number of nucleotide differences (k) was 3.200, and the nucleotide diversity ( π) was 0.010. The fragment diversity was highest between 152 bp and 251 bp. Conclusion The small mammals in Maixiu National Forest Park have a high infection rate with Bartonella, and B. grahamii is the dominant species, which has genetic diversity and may cause human infection and diseases.
2021, 32 (4): 398-403.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.04.003
Application of geospatial big data and artificial intelligence in driving factor identification and risk prediction for urban dengue fever
LI Zhi-chao, DONG Jin-wei, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract531)      PDF (497KB)(1162)      
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infectious disease that is widely distributed in urban or peri-urban areas in the tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate zones worldwide and threatens the health of populations in more than 100 countries and regions. Global climate change, urbanization, and urban population growth have created favorable conditions for the spread of dengue fever virus. At present, due to a lack of vaccines applicable for mass vaccination, Aedes vector control is the main measure for the prevention and control of dengue fever, and accurate and timely risk prediction for dengue fever can provide an important basis for precise prevention and control, and decision-making. In recent years, the development of geospatial big data promotes the identification of the driving factors for dengue fever at different spatial and temporal scales, and the advances in artificial intelligence, especially the emergence of various deep learning networks, provide new techniques for the risk prediction of dengue fever. Through a comprehensive analysis of the various types of driving factors for dengue fever and their mechanism of action, geospatial big data, and artificial intelligence techniques, this article elaborates on the application of geospatial big data in identifying the driving factors for dengue fever from the aspects of urban land use, climate and environment conditions, and population movement, as well as the current status of the application of artificial intelligence algorithms in predicting the risk of dengue fever transmission. Based on the current research status of geospatial big data and artificial intelligence, it is proposed that future research should develop spatiotemporal risk predictive models at different spatial and temporal scales and the performance of such models should be evaluated in terms of the difference between predicted and true values, the spatiotemporal aggregation patterns of dengue fever, and the actual needs of dengue fever prevention and control.
2022, 33 (3): 321-325.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.03.001
An investigation of Bartonella infection in rodents in the Changbai Mountains in China and its genotype analysis
WANG Zhuo, WU Qiong, JIN Mei-song, XING Yue-peng, YANG Yi-jun, WU Yi-min
Abstract245)      PDF (666KB)(1161)      
Objective To investigate the infection and genotype distribution of Bartonella in the rodents in the Changbai Mountains in China. Methods Rodents were captured in Kuandian,forest regions in Ji'an, and arable lands in Mishan in the Changbai Mountains;the rodents were tested for Bartonella rpoB DNA by PCR and the positive amplification products were sequenced and underwent phylogenetic analysis. Results In the 178 rodent spleen specimens tested,77 were positive,with a positive rate of Bartonella of 43.26%. The positive rates in the wild rodents were 66.15%,46.15%,and 8.33%,respectively,in Kuandian,Ji'an,and Mishan,with statistical differences in the infection rate of Bartonella between the three regions ( χ 2=37.957, P <0.001). Among different rodent species,the positive rates of Bartonella were 16.67%, 33.33%, 50.00%, and 26.67%, respectively, for Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus peninsulae, A. agrarius, and Cricetulus triton,with a statistical difference in the infection rate between the four species ( χ 2=8.420, P=0.038). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that four species of Bartonella ( B. grahamii, B. taylorii, B. phoceensis, and B. fuyuanensis) were detected from the rodents in the Changbai Mountains. Conclusion Bartonella infection is common in rodents in the Changbai Mountains,which is characterized by genotype diversity and host diversity of Bartonella.
2021, 32 (5): 594-598.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.05.017
Risk assessment of vectors at the venues of 7th CISM Military World Games, 2019
WU Li-qun, ZHOU Liang-cai, CHEN Xiao-min
Abstract244)      PDF (536KB)(1152)      
Objective To investigate the risk of non-disease hazards caused by vectors in different types of places of the 7th CISM Military World Games (CWG), to provide a scientific basis for vector control, and to ensure the successful hosting of the 7th CWG. Methods The instrument method was used to monitor vector density; visual observation method was used to check the equipment of rodent- and fly-proof facilities; the expert consultation method was used to assess the risk of non-disease hazards caused by vectors in different types of places during the 7th CWG. Results Based on the vector surveillance data in 2016-2018, the mean capture rate of rodents was 0.75%, the mean density of flies was 2.61 flies/cage, the mean density of cockroaches was 0.87 cockroaches/sheet·night, and the mean density of mosquitoes was 34.24 mosquitoes/lamp·night. The surveillance results of vector density in the places for the 7th CWG showed that the mean capture rate of rodents was 0.20%, the mean density of flies was 4.96 flies/cage, the mean density of cockroaches was 0.11 cockroaches/sheet·night, and the mean density of mosquitoes was 16.11 mosquitoes/lamp·night. The examination of vector-proof facilities showed that among the 197 places or units associated with the 7th CWG, 169 were found to have unqualified rodent-proof facilities, with an unqualified rate of 85.79%, and 130 were found to have unqualified fly-proof facilities, with an unqualified rate of 65.99%. Comprehensive assessment by experts indicated that vector bites and nuisance were rated as a high risk in military athletes’ village, competition stadiums, and media center, a low risk in key hotels for reception, and a moderate risk in other related places; vector contamination of environment and food and ugly sight were rated as a low risk in stadiums for opening and closing ceremonies, key hotels for reception, and competition stadiums and a moderate risk in other related places; vector destruction of electricity power facilities was evaluated as a high risk in competition stadiums, a low risk in key hotels for reception and designated hospitals and a moderate risk in other related places. Conclusion Targeted countermeasures for vector risk prevention should be adopted according to the results of vector surveillance, investigation of protective facilities, and risk assessment of vector hazards, so as to ensure that no serious hazards caused by vector occur during the 7th CWG.
2021, 32 (5): 618-623.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.05.022
Application progress of machine learning in mosquito and mosquito-borne disease research
SUN Yan-qun, ZHANG Shou-gang, ZHAO Shan-shan, LU Mo-yuan, ZHANG Yan, WANG Chong, LI Cheng-guo
Abstract351)      PDF (527KB)(1142)      
This article mainly introduced the application progress of machine learning in global mosquito and mosquito-borne disease research, systematically searched domestic and foreign databases for literature research, briefly reviewed the main methods of machine learning, and systematically summarized several major applications of machine learning in mosquito and mosquito-borne disease research. It is mainly concentrated in the research fields of mosquito and mosquito-borne disease prediction and early warning, mosquito image and sound recognition, and mosquito biology, providing a new perspective for domestic mosquito and mosquito-borne disease prevention and control.
2021, 32 (4): 503-508.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.04.024
Distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in some regions of Asia and Africa
HU Xiao-yu, LI Zeng-kui, LI Zhong-yu, GENG Peng-cheng, ZHANG Shu-yun, GAO Dong, LIU Pei-qi, LI Hao-lin, HE Yong-cai, JIANG Shuo, CHEN Qiang, KANG Ming, LI Ji-xu, LI Ying
Abstract87)      PDF (1093KB)(1140)      
Ticks can transmit a wide range of pathogens, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. In order to lay the theoretical foundation for tick control in Asia and Africa, we review the reports published in the past five years on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Mongolia, China (only Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Qinghai province), Pakistan, and Egypt along the migration routes of migratory birds. The highest number of tick species (51) were reported in Pakistan, followed by Xinjiang and Qinghai of China, Egypt, and Mongolia. Only 11 tick species were reported in Mongolia. Most of the ticks found in these regions belonged to the family Ixodidae. The majority of reported tick-borne pathogens were zoonotic, including the genera of Anaplasma, Rickettsia, and Coxiella. Birds are hosts of various ticks and potential carriers of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the migration of birds from East Africa to West Asia may facilitate the spread of ticks and tick-borne pathogens along these regions.
2023, 34 (3): 428-439.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.025
Research advances of Sarcophaga in China
WANG Chao, YAN Li-ping, LI Xin-yu, ZHANG Dong, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract217)      PDF (544KB)(1104)      
Flies are important vectors which can carry and transmit a variety of pathogens mechanically and cause a variety of diseases. Some fly species can transmit diseases biologically. Flesh flies ( Sarcophaga) are a common group of flies and have public health importance in vector surveillance. However, there are still difficulties in the identification of flesh flies. This article reviews the studies of Sarcophaga, so as to provide a reference for the taxonomy, morphology, and phylogeny of Sarcophaga and promote the research on the prevention and control of vector flies.
2022, 33 (1): 153-158.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.028
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