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An investigation of the distribution of dengue vector Aedes in the main urban areas of 129 counties (cities, districts) of Yunnan province, China
ZHOU Ke-mei, YANG Ming-dong, LAN Xue-mei, ZHENG Yu-ting, TANG Ye-rong, WU Chao, JIANG Jin-yong
Abstract365)      PDF (887KB)(1681)      
Objective To investigate mosquito in Yunnan province, China, as well as the population density, distribution, regional differences, and breeding habits of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in main urban areas. Methods Breteau index (BI) was used to investigate Aedes in the main urban areas of 129 counties, cities, and districts of Yunnan province, and all water containers in residential areas and special places (including park and green spaces in the urban area, recycling stations, tire collection stations, and hospitals) were checked. Water containers infested with larvae or pupae of Aedes vector were marked as positive, and the larvae in positive containers were collected and morphologically identified. Descriptive statistics was used to describe general information; the Chi-square test was used to investigate the difference in Aedes breeding sites between different areas and ecological environments, and the Chi-square test for trend was used to investigate the association between altitude and mosquito breeding density. Results Among the 129 counties, cities, and districts of Yunnan province, 71 (55.04%) were found to have Aedes vector, among which 68 (52.71%) were found to have Ae. albopictus alone and 3 (2.33%) were found to have both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. A total of 37 198 households were investigated, among which 1 068 households were positive for Aedes; a total of 167 206 water containers were found, among which 2 135 were positive, with a mean BI of 5.74, a house index of 2.87%, and a container index (CI) of 1.28%. Special places had significantly higher BI and CI than residential areas ( χ 2=4 509.220 and 128.591, both P<0.001). Tires were the most common type of water container and accounted for 44.84%, followed by other temporary containers (12.55%) and buckets (13.64%). Tires had the highest positive rate of 1.73%, followed by buckets (1.25%), other temporary containers (1.02%), waste bottles (0.95%), pool (0.59%), other permanent containers (0.56%), and vase (0.48%). In terms of water containers, Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture had the highest positive rate of 8.72% (583/6 689), followed by Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefecture (285/10 053, 2.83%), Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture (124/4 587, 2.70%), Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture (271/10 662, 2.54%), and Pu'er city (308/12 691, 2.43%). Among the 2 135 positive containers, 1 849 (86.60%) were found to have Ae. albopictus, 251 (11.76%) were found to have Ae. aegypti, and 35 (1.64%) were found to have both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The composition of Ae. aegypti was 79.66% in Mengla county, 67.03% in Ruili city, and 34.55% in Jinghong city, and there was a significant difference between them ( χ 2=28.194, P<0.001). The Chi-square test for trend showed a linear relationship between Aedes breeding rate and altitude ( χ 2=1 413.993, P<0.001), and Aedes breeding rate gradually decreased with the increase in altitude. Conclusion Ae. albopictus is widely distributed in Yunnan province and Ae. aegypti has become the dominant species in some areas. Special places have a higher breeding rate of Aedes than residential areas, and border regions tend to have a high mosquito density. The density of Aedes vector gradually decreases with the increase in altitude, and no Aedes breeding is observed in the places with an altitude above 2 000 m. Buckets, tires, and waste cans are the main contributors for Aedes breeding in residential areas, while tires and other waste containers are the main contributors for Aedes breeding in special places.
2021, 32 (2): 150-157.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.02.006
Cross-border spread, indigenous transmission, development trend, and control strategy for dengue fever and chikungunya fever in Yunnan province, China
ZHANG Hai-lin
Abstract406)      PDF (827KB)(1663)      
Both dengue fever (DF) and chikungunya fever (CHIKF) are important mosquito-borne viral diseases with global distribution, and these two diseases have relatively similar epidemiological and clinical features, with the main vectors of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The local epidemic of DF occurred in China-Myanmar and China-Laos border areas of Yunnan province, China every year in 2013-2019, and it also occurred in China-Vietnam border area in 2019, while the local epidemic of CHIKF occurred in China-Myanmar border area for the first time in 2019. The imported cases of DF and CHIKF from Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, and/or Vietnam were the main cause of the local epidemic of these two diseases in Yunnan province. The special geographical location and ecological environment of Yunnan province are suitable for the breeding of the vector Aedes mosquitoes and the transmission of DF and CHIKF viruses. There are still high risks of re-epidemic or pandemic of DF and CHIKF in this region, with the possibility of endemic an severe cases of DF. At present, there is an urgent need to carry out in-depth research on the source of pathogens, the investigation of epidemic foci, clinical science, antibody level in population, and sustainable control of Aedes vectors, and meanwhile, control of cross-border spread, mosquito control, and joint prevention and control in China-Myanmar, China-Laos, and China-Vietnam border areas are the key prevention and control measures that need to be strengthened at present.
2021, 32 (1): 12-20.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.01.002
Epidemiological and cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, 2013-2020
WEI Chun, GUO Xiao-lian, YANG Rui, TANG Ye-rong, YUE Yu-juan, LIU Xiao-bo, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract296)      PDF (1445KB)(1249)      
Objective To investigate the epidemiological and spatial cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for the formulation and improvement of targeted prevention and control measures in future. Methods The data of dengue cases in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Software ArcMap 10.7 was used to plot the geographical distribution, and software SaTScan v9.3 was used to analyze the spatial clustering. Results A total of 14 031 dengue cases were reported in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020, including 11 505 indigenous cases, 2 507 overseas imported cases, and 19 cases imported from other provinces. The epidemic showed a "zigzag" increase. The overall spatial scan statistics detected two class I clusters in Jinghong city (log-likelihood ratio[LLR]=22 647.97) and Ruili city (LLR=10 125.08), and two class II clusters in Mengla county (LLR=1 167.76) and Gengma county (LLR=1 061.22). Class I clusters were detected in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019. The indigenous cases were found in 10 border counties. The overseas imported cases were mainly from southeast Asian countries and African countries, and Myanmar, Cambodia, and Laos were the main source countries. The reported cases were mainly imported in the first half of the year and were mainly indigenous in the second half of the year. The number of cases began to increase in July, peaked in August to October, and began to decline in November. Among the 14 031 dengue cases, the male/female ratio was 1:0.88, and 79.78% of the cases were aged from 15 to 60 years. The top five occupations in terms of incidence were business services (20.95%), farmers (20.52%), unemployed people (11.17%), retired people (8.97%), and students (7.31%). Conclusion The situation of dengue fever in Yunnan province is serious. It is urgent to do a good job in the control and management of imported cases and the monitoring and control of vector Aedes, thus providing guarantee for sustainable control of dengue fever.
2021, 32 (6): 720-724.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.06.013
Study on the lethal rate of six active ingredients to Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana
TANG Li-ping, ZHU Jian, LIAO Guo-dong, WU Ying-hua
Abstract1070)      PDF (749KB)(1304)      
Objective To test and compare the speed of death of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana treated with six active ingredients, and to provide theoretical basis for consumers' experience. Methods Using the open square box method, 30 test insects were starved for one day had allowed access to cockroach baits containing each of the six effective components. The number of dead insects was counted at regular time intervals, and LT 50 and LT 95 were calculated according to the weighted linear regression method. Results Without other feed, the LT 50 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>1.5% propoxur>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb, and the order of the LT 50 for P. americana was 2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>1.5% propoxur>0.1% indoxacarb. The LT 95 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur, and the LT 95 for P. americana was in the order of 0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.05% fipronil>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur>2.5% imidacloprid. Dinotefuran had almost no toxic effect on P. americana. Cockroaches fed less on the diets of dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur, which had a faster death rate in the early stage, and fed more on the diets of chlorpyrifos, fipronil and indoxacarb, which had a slower death rate in the early stage. Conclusion On the whole, cockroach baits with different active ingredients had different lethal rates to different species of cockroaches. Dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur were quicker to kill B. germanica, while chlorpyrifos and fipronil were quicker to kill P. americana.
2022, 33 (3): 340-345.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.03.005
National surveillance report on rodent-borne pathogens of disease vectors in 2021
National Vector Surveillance System, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Abstract583)      PDF (892KB)(928)      
In 2021, the national surveillance of rodent-borne pathogens of disease vectors had been started up, and a total of 123 prefectures were selected as national surveillance sites. Sampling was completed at 95 surveillance sites. A total of 17 910 rodent specimens were collected, and 16 891 of them were tested. The completion rate of pathogen detection was 94.31%. The overall infection rate of eight monitored rodent-borne pathogens around China was 2.43% (407/16 716) for Hantavirus, 0.02% (4/16 154) for Dabie bandavirus (i.e., severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus), 5.75% (624/10 850) for Leptospira interrogans, 0.11% (5/4 470) for Rickettsia mooseri, 0.05% (5/10 790) for Orientia tsutsugamushi, 2.39% (75/3 136) for Bartonella, and 0.04% (2/5 075) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Francisella tularensis was not detected. More than ten species of rodents were found to be infected with different pathogens in 18 provinces across China. The infection rates of pathogens in rodents in southern regions were relatively high, and the positive rates of pathogens carried by various rodents differed. Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus agrarius were the species in which the most pathogens were detected.
2023, 34 (1): 1-8.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.001
Catalogue of major invasive alien vectors and pathogens in China (2023 version)
LIANG Ying, XU Ye, YIN Ying-xuan, LI Xue-rong, MAO Fan-zhen, DAI Yang, LI Hong-yun, LI Chao, MA De-long, ZHOU Ruo-bing, WEI Xiao-hui, WANG Xiao-xu, JI Hao-qiang, YUE Yu-juan, HOU Xue-xin, LI Ming-hui, LI Zhen-jun, CAI Hui-ling, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract970)      PDF (1007KB)(886)      
Objective To formulate a catalogue of alien vectors and pathogenic organisms for early warning and effective prevention of alien species invasion. Methods The authors searched literature, online databases, and published catalogues for alien vectors and pathogens that can seriously threaten the health of human and animals and agricultural and ecological security. They were evaluated for the risk of invasion to China by using a suitable habitat prediction model and a comprehensive evaluation system of multiple indicators. Candidate species with the potential of invasion were included in this catalogue. Results A total of 304 alien species were screened out and listed in this catalogue for China, including 69 vectors and 235 pathogenic organisms. Among them, 275 species (47 vectors and 228 pathogens) had high probability of invading China. Conclusion This catalogue can be used as an early warning directory to prevent alien vectors and pathogenic organisms from invading China, which provides a reference for relevant departments to formulate preventive management strategies and measures.
2023, 34 (2): 129-136.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.001
Establishment of a duplex droplet digital PCR assay for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses
ZHANG Jun-feng, ZHANG Ya-li, WANG Rui-chen, LU Yang, ZHANG Tian-zi, FU Shi-hong, YIN Qi-kai, LI Fan, HE Ying, NIE Kai, MA Chao-feng, LIANG Guo-dong, HU Rui-ping, XU Song-tao, WANG Huan-yu
Abstract159)      PDF (1462KB)(741)      
Objective To establish a duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) detection method for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Methods Based on the designed primers and probes of JEV and WNV, a duplex ddPCR detection system for JEV and WNV was established. Its sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were explored. The sensitivity was compared with the number of cycles required for the fluorescent signal to cross the threshold in each reaction tube of dual quantitative PCR. Results The detection sensitivity of the duplex ddPCR detection system could reach 10 2 copies/μl for both JEV and WNV, with good specificity and repeatability. No cross-reactivity was observed with the Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, and human genome. Conclusion The established duplex ddPCR method shows high sensitivity and specificity for JEV and WNV detection, which provides a solution for detection for the two viruses in different scenarios.
2023, 34 (3): 285-290.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.001
Advances and achievements in the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China,2012-2021
LIU Qi-yong, LIU Xiao-bo, CHANG Nan, ZHANG Lu
Abstract817)      PDF (1117KB)(995)      
Objective To analyze the policies,strategies,techniques,actions,and achievements in the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China since 2012. Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze and summarize the epidemiologic situation and challenges of vectors and vector-borne diseases,the surveillance of vectors,and the advances in the control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China in the past ten years.The Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the trend of the incidence rate of vector-borne diseases in the past decade using R 4.0.4 software. Results A series of policies,strategies,measures,and techniques were formulated and released for sustainable vector management in China in the past decade.The vector surveillance program in China had been continuously upgraded and improved,and a national vector surveillance network integrating ecology,etiology,and insecticide resistance had been established and improved.The number of national vector surveillance sites (1 097) in 2021 was increased by 54 times,and the funds input in national vector surveillance was increased by 127 times.Direct network reporting was realized for surveillance data,and there was a significant increase in the timely utilization rate of surveillance data,which provided better support for risk assessment,prediction and early warning,decision making,and control effect evaluation.The total annual incidence rate of vector-borne diseases in China in 2021(3.060/100 000) was reduced by 8.66% compared with that in 2007-2011(3.350/100 000),and the total annual mortality rate of vector-borne diseases in 2021(0.016/100 000) was reduced by 33.33% compared with that in 2007-2011(0.024/100 000).China had achieved the goal of malaria elimination and mitigated the accelerating increases in the incidence rates of dengue fever,scrub typhus,and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Conclusion In 2012-2021,leapfrog development has been achieved for the policies,strategies,techniques,and actions for the surveillance and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases in China,and there are significant reductions in the incidence and mortality rates of vector-borne diseases.In view of the natural and social driving factors at present,the prevention and control of vectors and vector-borne diseases still face severe challenges,and therefore,it is urgent to further promote the strategies and measures for sustainable vector management,implement Global Vector Control Response 2017-2030,build proactive defense based on"reverse microbial etiology",so as to prevent and control major vector-borne diseases.
2022, 33 (5): 613-621.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.05.001
Resistance of Musca domestica to commonly used insecticides in Zhejiang province, China, 2021
Yu-yan WU, Qin-mei LIU, Jin-na WANG, Tian-qi LI, Ming-yu LUO, Zhen-yu GONG
Abstract144)      PDF (727KB)(718)      
Objective To investigate the resistance of Musca domestica populations to commonly used insecticides in different regions of Zhejiang province, China, in 2021, and to provide a scientific basis for rational insecticide use of fly control. Methods Different field populations of M. domestica were collected from 12 monitoring sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Shaoxing, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Taizhou, Lishui, Zhoushan, and Yiwu, Zhejiang province from April to November 2021. The topical application method was used to determine the resistance of M. domestica to seven commonly used insecticides of pyrethroids, organophosphorus and carbamates. Results The resistance ratios of M. domestica populations to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur were 0.83-255.00, 4.44-158.78, 6.11-64.81, 1.76-53.57, 2.45-130.11, 3.37-10.39, and 2.52-1 149.63 in 11 prefecture-level cities and Yiwu, Zhejiang province. Conclusion Some field populations of M. domestica in different regions of Zhejiang province have developed varying degrees of resistance to many of the seven commonly used insecticides. In the future fly control, measures should be taken to standardize the use of chemical insecticides based on the results of resistance monitoring in order to effectively reduce the density of flies and delay the development of resistance.
2023, 34 (1): 26-30.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.005
Vector control strategy for Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games: Main Media Center as an example
ZHOU Xiao-jie, ZHANG Yong, WU Dan, ZHANG Hong-jiang, GAN Ya-di, TANG Wei-min, TONG Ying
Abstract224)      PDF (666KB)(698)      
In 2022, the Winter Olympic Games was first held in Beijing, China. To ensure that the key areas of the Winter Olympic Games were not affected by vectors and to minimize the risk of vector-borne diseases, the density of vectors in the key areas of the Winter Olympic Games and the cities where they are located should be effectively controlled. This paper focuses on the vector control strategy and working mechanism during Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games, and discusses the control model, risk assessment, inter-sectoral coordination, publicity and training, hazard monitoring, control technology, supervision and inspection, and emergency response with Main Media Center as an example. The vector density was effectively controlled during the Winter Olympic Games, no plague and other vector-borne diseases occurred, and there were no incidents of vector-borne hazards. The vector control model, technical measures, and working mechanism formed during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games were verified and deepened in the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games, which can be used as a guidance for vector control in similar large-scale activities in the future.
2023, 34 (1): 122-127.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.023
Reported cases of vector-borne diseases in China, 2005-2020: Epidemic trend, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies
LIU Qi-yong
Abstract741)      PDF (3128KB)(1337)      
Objective To analyze the data of reported cases of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in China in 2005-2020, and to investigate the epidemic characteristics and trend of VBDs, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies. Methods The descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the data of reported cases of VBDs in China in 2005-2020, and the challenges in prevention and control and related coping strategies were determined based on the epidemic characteristics of VBDs, current policies, and related literature domestic and abroad. Results A total of 905 092 cases of 14 VBDs were reported in China in 2005-2020, among which malaria, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) accounted for 66.94%, the ten notifiable VBDs accounted for 76.01%. A total of 5 076 death cases were reported, among which the death cases due to Japanese encephalitis (JE), HFRS, severe fever with thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS), and malaria accounted for 93.26%. The incidence of VBDs fluctuated and decreased in 2005-2020. The number of cases showed two significant peaks in 2006 and 2014-2015. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed a significant trend of reduction in JE, malaria, typhus, and leptospirosis ( P<0.01) and a significant trend of increase in SFTS and scrub typhus ( P<0.01). At the same time, the incidence of VBDs showed marked seasonality with a peak in October. About 2 165 districts/counties reported VBDs annually, mainly in the east of the Heihe-Tengchong line. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed that the number of districts/counties reporting such cases tended to increase with no significance ( P=0.367). Over the past 16 years, the number of cases of vector-borne diseases tended to decrease in northeast China, while this number tended to increase in southwest China. Different diseases had different ages of onset, and the peak age of onset of VBDs was 20-44 years. The male population tended to have a higher incidence rate than the female population. Conclusion The number of cases of VBDs tends to decrease with fluctuation in China, but it still remains at a relatively high level, and the epidemic area tends to expand, with continuous increases in the incidence rate or mortality rate of some VBDs. As for the new challenges in the control of VBDs, it is necessary to implement related strategies and measures including the integrated vector management and sustainable vector management, so as to further reduce the morbidity and mortality of VBDs and achieve the targets and goals of Health China and Global Vector Control Strategies.
2022, 33 (1): 1-7.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.001
Isolation and identification of a sandfly-borne virus (SXWX1816-2) in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, China
YIN Qi-kai, WANG Jing, FU Shi-hong, NIE Kai, LI Fan, HE Ying, XU Song-tao, WANG Huan-yu, LIANG Guo-dong
Abstract50)      PDF (3523KB)(679)      
Objective To investigate the species and prevalence of viruses carried by sandfly specimens in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, China. Methods Sandfly specimens were collected in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province in June 2018, and virus isolation was conducted using two cell lines of golden hamster kidney cells (BHK-21 cells) and Aedes albopictus egg cells (C6/36 cells) preserved in the laboratory. The positive isolate was subjected to viral RNA extraction and cDNA library preparation, followed by viral gene amplification, nucleotide sequence determination, and phylogenetic analysis. Results The SXWX1816-2 strain caused cytopathic effects in mammalian cells (BHK-21 cells), but no cytopathic effect in insect cells (C6/36 cells). The results of nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the virus genome showed that the lengths of nucleotide sequences in the coding region of M and S genes of the virus were 4 089 and 1 611 nt; the results of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of M and S genes of the virus showed that the SXWX1816-2 strain belonged to the Phlebovirus genus from the Phenuiviridae family, which shared the highest homology and closest phylogenetic relationship with Wuxiang virus (WUXV) previously isolated in China. Conclusions This study clarifies the taxonomic status of the virus (SXWX1816-2) isolated from natural sandflies in China. The results provide important basic data for the research on viruses carried by blood-sucking insects in China, especially the virus carried and transmitted by sandflies.
2023, 34 (2): 270-275.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.021
The status quo of professionals in pest control organizations in China
FU Yan-ping, GAO Xi-wu
Abstract1553)      PDF (981KB)(2568)      

Objective To analyze the overall situation and development trends of professionals in pest control organization (PCO) in China. Methods The staff composition (including practice time, age and education background), training, remuneration and health insurance in this domestic industry were compared with the foreign counterparts. Results Professionals in China’s PCO had short practice time, wide-span age distribution, deficient experience, low educational level, unstable performance, poor remuneration and shortage of corresponding occupational health insurance, indicating significant difference with the same industry in foreign countries. Conclusion PCO professionals are the key to the development of an enterprise, or even the whole industry. Their quality is determinant of the industry’s overall service quality. With the overall improvement of the quality of PCO professionals in China, this industry will achieve rapid development and present a new image.

2010, 21 (6): 624-625,637.
Distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in some regions of Asia and Africa
HU Xiao-yu, LI Zeng-kui, LI Zhong-yu, GENG Peng-cheng, ZHANG Shu-yun, GAO Dong, LIU Pei-qi, LI Hao-lin, HE Yong-cai, JIANG Shuo, CHEN Qiang, KANG Ming, LI Ji-xu, LI Ying
Abstract68)      PDF (1093KB)(674)      
Ticks can transmit a wide range of pathogens, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. In order to lay the theoretical foundation for tick control in Asia and Africa, we review the reports published in the past five years on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Mongolia, China (only Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Qinghai province), Pakistan, and Egypt along the migration routes of migratory birds. The highest number of tick species (51) were reported in Pakistan, followed by Xinjiang and Qinghai of China, Egypt, and Mongolia. Only 11 tick species were reported in Mongolia. Most of the ticks found in these regions belonged to the family Ixodidae. The majority of reported tick-borne pathogens were zoonotic, including the genera of Anaplasma, Rickettsia, and Coxiella. Birds are hosts of various ticks and potential carriers of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the migration of birds from East Africa to West Asia may facilitate the spread of ticks and tick-borne pathogens along these regions.
2023, 34 (3): 428-439.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.025
Analysis of adult mosquito bionomic characteristics in Sichuan province, China, 2017-2021
Ya-jie HU, Zhen-chuan ZHANG, Ling-ling LI, Ji-gang YU, Guan-cui LI
Abstract120)      PDF (650KB)(691)      
Objective To investigate the bionomic characteristics of mosquito populations in Sichuan province, China from 2017 to 2021, and to provide a scientific basis for mosquito control and risk assessment of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Adult mosquito surveillance data in 21 cities/prefectures of Sichuan province from 2017 to 2021 software were collected. Mosquito surveillance was conducted continuously using the light trap method. Excel 2007 and SPSS 25.0 softwares were used for statistical analysis. Results From 2017 to 2021, the mean mosquito density was 1.60 mosquitoes/lamp·hour at 21 surveillance sites in Sichuan province. The mosquito density generally fluctuated at similar levels in the five years. The dominant mosquito species were Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and Anopheles sinensis, accounting for 35.64%, 33.98%, and 10.78% of the total catches, respectively. Among all habitats, the overall mosquito density was highest in livestock sheds (4.51 mosquitoes/lamp·hour) and lowest in hospitals (0.39 mosquitoes/lamp·hour). The overall mosquito density in rural areas was statistically higher than that in urban areas ( Z=-6.523, P<0.001). The seasonal variation curve of mosquito density in Sichuan province showed a single peak, which occurred during June to July. Conclusion The mosquito densities were relatively low at surveillance sites in Sichuan province except for 2019. The dominant mosquito species were Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and An. sinensis. The rural areas had the highest mosquito density, which should be the key area for mosquito control. May to September was the peak period of dominant mosquito activities, and comprehensive mosquito control should be strengthened during this period.
2023, 34 (1): 44-47.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.008
An analysis of mosquito population density and seasonal fluctuation monitoring results in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China, 2017-2021
JIN Bin-bin, WEI Ling-ya, CAO Yang, SHAO Han-wen, WANG Ying-hong, KONG Qing-xin
Abstract112)      PDF (1158KB)(686)      
Objective To investigate the density and seasonal fluctuations of vector mosquitoes in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China from 2017 to 2021, and to provide a scientific basis for vector control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. Methods The light trap method was used to investigate 15 districts/counties/cities in Hangzhou from April to November, 2017-2021, in accordance with the "National Vector Surveillance Program" and "Zhejiang Province Vector Surveillance Program". Excel 2016 software was used to summarize the monitoring data, and SPSS 21.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used for the difference of mosquito composition ratio in different years, and one-way ANOVA was used for the difference of mosquito density in different habitats. Results From 2017 to 2021, the mosquito density in Hangzhou was 1.99 mosquitoes/light·night, and Culex pipiens pallens/quinquefasciatus (71.90%) was the dominant species. The seasonal fluctuation trend of mosquito density generally showed a bimodal curve, peaking in July and October. There were statistical differences in densities of Cx. pipiens pallens/quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, and Armigeres subalbatus between different years (all P<0.001). In terms of various habitats, livestock barns/farms had the highest mean mosquito density (4.92 mosquitoes/light·night), and hospitals had the lowest (1.35 mosquitoes/light·night). There were statistical differences in densities of An. sinensis and Ar. subalbatus between various habitats ( F=3.581, P=0.023; F=5.431, P=0.004). Cx. pipiens pallens/ quinquefasciatus was the dominant mosquito species in various habitats, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. albopictus, and An. sinensis. Livestock barns/farms had the highest mosquito densities in terms of any of the above five species. Conclusions The mosquito density in Hangzhou is generally at a low level. Cx. pipiens pallens/ quinquefasciatus is the dominant species. In future mosquito control, livestock barns/farms should be highlighted for special attention. Local districts/cities/counties should take targeted mosquito control measures based on their density changes, distribution, and seasonal fluctuations.
2023, 34 (3): 351-355.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.012
Influence of COVID-19 intervention on the epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China
Nan CHANG, Ruo-bing ZHOU, De-long MA, Lu ZHANG, Xiao-hui WEI, Jun WANG, Qi-yong LIU
Abstract154)      PDF (3442KB)(684)      
Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China from 2006 to 2021, to investigate the influence of non-pharmaceutical intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on HFRS prevalence, and to provide a scientific basis for the subsequent formulation of relevant policies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were utilized to statistically analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HFRS in China from 2006 to 2021. The data of HFRS cases from 2006 to 2019 were used to establish an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to predict the number of HFRS cases in 2020-2021, and the predicted values were compared with the actual observed values. Results The number of HFRS cases in China was relatively stable in 2006-2021, and the number of deaths were significantly reduced. HFRS had obvious seasonality, with two peaks of incidence in a year, i.e., May-June and November. The number of cases in northeast China decreased, but the affected areas in the whole country expanded, and some areas were still at risk of outbreak. The number of male cases was significantly higher than that of female cases. The peak age group of onset was 35-49 years for males and 45-59 years for females, and there was a significant difference in the age composition between males and females ( χ 2=2 802.807, P<0.001). Farmers were the main affected population, accounting for more than half of the total cases. The seasonal ARIMA model was established by fitting the data of HFRS cases from 2006 to 2019 with R 4.0.4 software, which was (2,0,2)(1,1,0) 12 and was well fitted. The actual observed value of HFRS cases in 2020-2021 was close to the predicted value, within its 95% confidence interval. Conclusion HFRS is an important public health problem in China and the overall trend of its prevalence is relatively stable. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and implement more accurate prevention and control measures. The measures for COVID-19 prevention and control in China have no significant impact on the prevalence of HFRS during 2020-2021.
2023, 34 (1): 58-64.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.011
Composition of parasitic fleas on rodents and spatiotemporal distribution of flea index in Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, 2012-2021
Lu ZHANG, Xiao-hui WEI, Nan CHANG, Hong-yun LI, Xiao-yan SI, Xue-feng BAI, Jun WANG, Qi-yong LIU
Abstract161)      PDF (8614KB)(679)      
Objective To investigate the species composition of rodents and ectoparasitic fleas on rodents as well as the spatiotemporal distribution and changes of the flea index of dominant rodents in Xilin Gol League,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,China,and to provide a basis for plague risk assessment and its prevention and control decisions-making. Methods With the monitoring data of 12 plague surveillance points in Xilin Gol League from 2012 to 2021,we used descriptive epidemiological methods to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of main rodents and their flea indexes. Results From 2012 to 2021,a total of 50 551 rodents were captured in Xilin Gol League,involving 18 species,13 genera,and 4 families. Among them,19 958 rodents carried fleas,with an average flea infestation rate of 39.48%. A total of 83 147 fleas were collected,belonging to 35 species/subspecies,14 genera,and 5 families,with an overall flea index of 1.64. Meriones unguiculatus, Spermophilus dauricus,and Lasiopodomys brandtii were the dominant rodent species. Citellophilus tesquorum mongolicus, Xenopsylla conformis conformis, Frontopsylla luculenta,and Nosopsyllus laeviceps kuzenkovi were the main parasitic fleas. M. unguiculatus carried more diverse flea species on the body surface than L. brandtii and S. dauricus. The mixed flea index ( S=-25.000, P=0.032) and S. dauricus flea index ( S=-23.000, P=0.049) showed a downward trend in Xilin Gol League during the ten years. The M. unguiculatus flea index and L. brandtii flea index had no significant changes. The S. dauricus flea index was significantly higher than the L. brandtii flea index ( H=15.000, P<0.001) and the M. unguiculatus flea index ( H=-15.000, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the L. brandtii and M. unguiculatus flea indexes ( H<0.001, P=1.000). The mixed flea index peaked in July at 4.47. The M. unguiculatus flea index was significantly different between banners/counties of Xilin Gol League ( H=52.579, P<0.001), which was highest in Sonid Left and Xianghuang banners. The S. dauricus flea index was significantly different between banners/counties of Xilin Gol League ( H=73.253, P<0.001),which was highest in West Ujimqin and Zhengxiangbai banners. The L. brandtii flea index showed no significant difference between banners/counties of Xilin Gol League ( H=5.864, P=0.118). Conclusion The three types of plague foci in Xilin Gol League overlap. Meriones unguiculatus carries a diversity of fleas,with a high risk of transmitting plague bacteria. Surveillance points should comprehensively monitor plague epizootics to prevent plague from resurging among animals and expanding to human beings.
2023, 34 (1): 82-90.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.015
A preliminary investigation of effects of grassland road on Capillaria hepatica infection rate in Microtus gregalis
Jin LIU, Shu-li HUANG, Hong-mei LI, Hasibaolidao, Ya TU, Xiao-min ZHANG, Chao LI, Wen-ji HUANG
Abstract65)      PDF (635KB)(625)      
Objective To study the effects of grassland roads on the density of Microtus gregalis and the rate and degree of Capillaria hepatica infection in M. gregalis. Methods From July to August 2006, in typical grassland (where M. gregalis was the dominant rodent species) in West Ujimqin Banner, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, the relationship between grassland roads and the rate of C. hepatica infection in M. gregalis was investigated. The grassland was divided into experimental area (close to the grassland road) and control area (500 m away from the road). Each area was equally divided into six plots. Almost all narrow-skulled voles in plots were captured using rodent traps. The infection rate of C. hepatica was divided into four levels (0-3) from mild to severe. The infection rate was recorded and the independent sample t test was used to analyze data. Results The mean C. hepatica infection rate of M. gregalis was statistically higher in the experimental plots than in the control plots[(26.15±4.28)% vs (16.23±3.38)%, t=4.108, P=0.002]. The mean infection level of the infected voles was statistically higher in the experimental plots than in the control plots (1.55 vs 1.15, t=3.908, P=0.003). There was no statistical difference in the mean number of captured narrow-skulled voles between the experimental and control plots (23.17 vs 21.33, t=1.003, P=0.339). Conclusion Grassland roads have no statistical impact on the density of narrow-skulled voles, but narrow-skulled voles living close to grassland roads are more likely to have C. hepatica infection, which tend to be more severe, compared with those away from grassland roads. Grassland roads could promote the spread of C. hepatica, which should be paid attention to.
2023, 34 (1): 109-113.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.020
The relationship between rodents and environmental factors and human activities
Zi-wei LI, Jia-xiang YIN
Abstract224)      PDF (571KB)(668)      
Rodents are not only causing massive damage to human production and life, but they also can pose a great threat to human life and health as they carry pathogens. Controlling the rodent population can reduce rodent infestation and effectively prevent rodent-borne diseases. This review demonstrates the relationship between biological, soil, meteorological, human activities and rodents, and clarifies the influence of environmental factors, human activities on rodents, which provides references for effective control of rodent infestation and scientific prevention and control of rodent-borne disease epidemics.
2023, 34 (1): 117-121.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.01.022
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