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Cross-border spread, indigenous transmission, development trend, and control strategy for dengue fever and chikungunya fever in Yunnan province, China
ZHANG Hai-lin
Abstract429)      PDF (827KB)(1968)      
Both dengue fever (DF) and chikungunya fever (CHIKF) are important mosquito-borne viral diseases with global distribution, and these two diseases have relatively similar epidemiological and clinical features, with the main vectors of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The local epidemic of DF occurred in China-Myanmar and China-Laos border areas of Yunnan province, China every year in 2013-2019, and it also occurred in China-Vietnam border area in 2019, while the local epidemic of CHIKF occurred in China-Myanmar border area for the first time in 2019. The imported cases of DF and CHIKF from Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, and/or Vietnam were the main cause of the local epidemic of these two diseases in Yunnan province. The special geographical location and ecological environment of Yunnan province are suitable for the breeding of the vector Aedes mosquitoes and the transmission of DF and CHIKF viruses. There are still high risks of re-epidemic or pandemic of DF and CHIKF in this region, with the possibility of endemic an severe cases of DF. At present, there is an urgent need to carry out in-depth research on the source of pathogens, the investigation of epidemic foci, clinical science, antibody level in population, and sustainable control of Aedes vectors, and meanwhile, control of cross-border spread, mosquito control, and joint prevention and control in China-Myanmar, China-Laos, and China-Vietnam border areas are the key prevention and control measures that need to be strengthened at present.
2021, 32 (1): 12-20.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.01.002
An investigation of the distribution of dengue vector Aedes in the main urban areas of 129 counties (cities, districts) of Yunnan province, China
ZHOU Ke-mei, YANG Ming-dong, LAN Xue-mei, ZHENG Yu-ting, TANG Ye-rong, WU Chao, JIANG Jin-yong
Abstract382)      PDF (887KB)(1862)      
Objective To investigate mosquito in Yunnan province, China, as well as the population density, distribution, regional differences, and breeding habits of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in main urban areas. Methods Breteau index (BI) was used to investigate Aedes in the main urban areas of 129 counties, cities, and districts of Yunnan province, and all water containers in residential areas and special places (including park and green spaces in the urban area, recycling stations, tire collection stations, and hospitals) were checked. Water containers infested with larvae or pupae of Aedes vector were marked as positive, and the larvae in positive containers were collected and morphologically identified. Descriptive statistics was used to describe general information; the Chi-square test was used to investigate the difference in Aedes breeding sites between different areas and ecological environments, and the Chi-square test for trend was used to investigate the association between altitude and mosquito breeding density. Results Among the 129 counties, cities, and districts of Yunnan province, 71 (55.04%) were found to have Aedes vector, among which 68 (52.71%) were found to have Ae. albopictus alone and 3 (2.33%) were found to have both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. A total of 37 198 households were investigated, among which 1 068 households were positive for Aedes; a total of 167 206 water containers were found, among which 2 135 were positive, with a mean BI of 5.74, a house index of 2.87%, and a container index (CI) of 1.28%. Special places had significantly higher BI and CI than residential areas ( χ 2=4 509.220 and 128.591, both P<0.001). Tires were the most common type of water container and accounted for 44.84%, followed by other temporary containers (12.55%) and buckets (13.64%). Tires had the highest positive rate of 1.73%, followed by buckets (1.25%), other temporary containers (1.02%), waste bottles (0.95%), pool (0.59%), other permanent containers (0.56%), and vase (0.48%). In terms of water containers, Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture had the highest positive rate of 8.72% (583/6 689), followed by Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefecture (285/10 053, 2.83%), Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture (124/4 587, 2.70%), Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture (271/10 662, 2.54%), and Pu'er city (308/12 691, 2.43%). Among the 2 135 positive containers, 1 849 (86.60%) were found to have Ae. albopictus, 251 (11.76%) were found to have Ae. aegypti, and 35 (1.64%) were found to have both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The composition of Ae. aegypti was 79.66% in Mengla county, 67.03% in Ruili city, and 34.55% in Jinghong city, and there was a significant difference between them ( χ 2=28.194, P<0.001). The Chi-square test for trend showed a linear relationship between Aedes breeding rate and altitude ( χ 2=1 413.993, P<0.001), and Aedes breeding rate gradually decreased with the increase in altitude. Conclusion Ae. albopictus is widely distributed in Yunnan province and Ae. aegypti has become the dominant species in some areas. Special places have a higher breeding rate of Aedes than residential areas, and border regions tend to have a high mosquito density. The density of Aedes vector gradually decreases with the increase in altitude, and no Aedes breeding is observed in the places with an altitude above 2 000 m. Buckets, tires, and waste cans are the main contributors for Aedes breeding in residential areas, while tires and other waste containers are the main contributors for Aedes breeding in special places.
2021, 32 (2): 150-157.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.02.006
Epidemiological and cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, 2013-2020
WEI Chun, GUO Xiao-lian, YANG Rui, TANG Ye-rong, YUE Yu-juan, LIU Xiao-bo, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract330)      PDF (1445KB)(1560)      
Objective To investigate the epidemiological and spatial cluster characteristics of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for the formulation and improvement of targeted prevention and control measures in future. Methods The data of dengue cases in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Software ArcMap 10.7 was used to plot the geographical distribution, and software SaTScan v9.3 was used to analyze the spatial clustering. Results A total of 14 031 dengue cases were reported in Yunnan province from 2013 to 2020, including 11 505 indigenous cases, 2 507 overseas imported cases, and 19 cases imported from other provinces. The epidemic showed a "zigzag" increase. The overall spatial scan statistics detected two class I clusters in Jinghong city (log-likelihood ratio[LLR]=22 647.97) and Ruili city (LLR=10 125.08), and two class II clusters in Mengla county (LLR=1 167.76) and Gengma county (LLR=1 061.22). Class I clusters were detected in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019. The indigenous cases were found in 10 border counties. The overseas imported cases were mainly from southeast Asian countries and African countries, and Myanmar, Cambodia, and Laos were the main source countries. The reported cases were mainly imported in the first half of the year and were mainly indigenous in the second half of the year. The number of cases began to increase in July, peaked in August to October, and began to decline in November. Among the 14 031 dengue cases, the male/female ratio was 1:0.88, and 79.78% of the cases were aged from 15 to 60 years. The top five occupations in terms of incidence were business services (20.95%), farmers (20.52%), unemployed people (11.17%), retired people (8.97%), and students (7.31%). Conclusion The situation of dengue fever in Yunnan province is serious. It is urgent to do a good job in the control and management of imported cases and the monitoring and control of vector Aedes, thus providing guarantee for sustainable control of dengue fever.
2021, 32 (6): 720-724.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2021.06.013
Catalogue of major invasive alien vectors and pathogens in China (2023 version)
LIANG Ying, XU Ye, YIN Ying-xuan, LI Xue-rong, MAO Fan-zhen, DAI Yang, LI Hong-yun, LI Chao, MA De-long, ZHOU Ruo-bing, WEI Xiao-hui, WANG Xiao-xu, JI Hao-qiang, YUE Yu-juan, HOU Xue-xin, LI Ming-hui, LI Zhen-jun, CAI Hui-ling, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract1300)      PDF (1007KB)(1267)      
Objective To formulate a catalogue of alien vectors and pathogenic organisms for early warning and effective prevention of alien species invasion. Methods The authors searched literature, online databases, and published catalogues for alien vectors and pathogens that can seriously threaten the health of human and animals and agricultural and ecological security. They were evaluated for the risk of invasion to China by using a suitable habitat prediction model and a comprehensive evaluation system of multiple indicators. Candidate species with the potential of invasion were included in this catalogue. Results A total of 304 alien species were screened out and listed in this catalogue for China, including 69 vectors and 235 pathogenic organisms. Among them, 275 species (47 vectors and 228 pathogens) had high probability of invading China. Conclusion This catalogue can be used as an early warning directory to prevent alien vectors and pathogenic organisms from invading China, which provides a reference for relevant departments to formulate preventive management strategies and measures.
2023, 34 (2): 129-136.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.001
Study on the lethal rate of six active ingredients to Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana
TANG Li-ping, ZHU Jian, LIAO Guo-dong, WU Ying-hua
Abstract1177)      PDF (749KB)(1516)      
Objective To test and compare the speed of death of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana treated with six active ingredients, and to provide theoretical basis for consumers' experience. Methods Using the open square box method, 30 test insects were starved for one day had allowed access to cockroach baits containing each of the six effective components. The number of dead insects was counted at regular time intervals, and LT 50 and LT 95 were calculated according to the weighted linear regression method. Results Without other feed, the LT 50 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>1.5% propoxur>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb, and the order of the LT 50 for P. americana was 2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>1.5% propoxur>0.1% indoxacarb. The LT 95 for B. germanica was in the order of 0.5% dinotefuran>2.5% imidacloprid>0.05% fipronil>0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur, and the LT 95 for P. americana was in the order of 0.2% chlorpyrifos>0.05% fipronil>0.1% indoxacarb>1.5% propoxur>2.5% imidacloprid. Dinotefuran had almost no toxic effect on P. americana. Cockroaches fed less on the diets of dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur, which had a faster death rate in the early stage, and fed more on the diets of chlorpyrifos, fipronil and indoxacarb, which had a slower death rate in the early stage. Conclusion On the whole, cockroach baits with different active ingredients had different lethal rates to different species of cockroaches. Dinotefuran, imidacloprid and propoxur were quicker to kill B. germanica, while chlorpyrifos and fipronil were quicker to kill P. americana.
2022, 33 (3): 340-345.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.03.005
Establishment of a duplex droplet digital PCR assay for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses
ZHANG Jun-feng, ZHANG Ya-li, WANG Rui-chen, LU Yang, ZHANG Tian-zi, FU Shi-hong, YIN Qi-kai, LI Fan, HE Ying, NIE Kai, MA Chao-feng, LIANG Guo-dong, HU Rui-ping, XU Song-tao, WANG Huan-yu
Abstract182)      PDF (1462KB)(923)      
Objective To establish a duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) detection method for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Methods Based on the designed primers and probes of JEV and WNV, a duplex ddPCR detection system for JEV and WNV was established. Its sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were explored. The sensitivity was compared with the number of cycles required for the fluorescent signal to cross the threshold in each reaction tube of dual quantitative PCR. Results The detection sensitivity of the duplex ddPCR detection system could reach 10 2 copies/μl for both JEV and WNV, with good specificity and repeatability. No cross-reactivity was observed with the Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, and human genome. Conclusion The established duplex ddPCR method shows high sensitivity and specificity for JEV and WNV detection, which provides a solution for detection for the two viruses in different scenarios.
2023, 34 (3): 285-290.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.001
The status quo of professionals in pest control organizations in China
FU Yan-ping, GAO Xi-wu
Abstract1588)      PDF (981KB)(2791)      

Objective To analyze the overall situation and development trends of professionals in pest control organization (PCO) in China. Methods The staff composition (including practice time, age and education background), training, remuneration and health insurance in this domestic industry were compared with the foreign counterparts. Results Professionals in China’s PCO had short practice time, wide-span age distribution, deficient experience, low educational level, unstable performance, poor remuneration and shortage of corresponding occupational health insurance, indicating significant difference with the same industry in foreign countries. Conclusion PCO professionals are the key to the development of an enterprise, or even the whole industry. Their quality is determinant of the industry’s overall service quality. With the overall improvement of the quality of PCO professionals in China, this industry will achieve rapid development and present a new image.

2010, 21 (6): 624-625,637.
Distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in some regions of Asia and Africa
HU Xiao-yu, LI Zeng-kui, LI Zhong-yu, GENG Peng-cheng, ZHANG Shu-yun, GAO Dong, LIU Pei-qi, LI Hao-lin, HE Yong-cai, JIANG Shuo, CHEN Qiang, KANG Ming, LI Ji-xu, LI Ying
Abstract82)      PDF (1093KB)(844)      
Ticks can transmit a wide range of pathogens, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. In order to lay the theoretical foundation for tick control in Asia and Africa, we review the reports published in the past five years on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Mongolia, China (only Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Qinghai province), Pakistan, and Egypt along the migration routes of migratory birds. The highest number of tick species (51) were reported in Pakistan, followed by Xinjiang and Qinghai of China, Egypt, and Mongolia. Only 11 tick species were reported in Mongolia. Most of the ticks found in these regions belonged to the family Ixodidae. The majority of reported tick-borne pathogens were zoonotic, including the genera of Anaplasma, Rickettsia, and Coxiella. Birds are hosts of various ticks and potential carriers of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the migration of birds from East Africa to West Asia may facilitate the spread of ticks and tick-borne pathogens along these regions.
2023, 34 (3): 428-439.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.025
Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Lasiopodomys brandtii populations in three regions of Inner Mongolia, China
LIU Yu-qiu, LU Liang, LIU Peng-bo, ZHAO Ning, LI Gui-chang, LI Dong-mei, SONG Xiu-ping, WANG Jun, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract114)      PDF (1326KB)(866)      
Objective To analyze the genetic diversity of nine batches of Lasiopodomys brandtii rodents from three sample plots (New Barag Right banner, East Ujimqin banner, and Xilinhot city) of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Inner Mongolia), China by using 16 pairs of microsatellite primers. Methods A total of 275 L. brandtii rodents were trapped using snaps or cages in May, July, and September of 2021. DNA was extracted from them with magnetic beads, followed by PCR amplification with 16 pairs of fluorescent-labeled microsatellite primers. The microsatellite data were obtained using GeneMarker. The genetic diversity and structure of L. brandtii populations were analyzed using GenAIEx 6.5, Arlequin (version 30), and structure 2.3.4. Results A total of 472 alleles were detected by using 16 pairs of microsatellite primers. The average polymorphic information content was 0.821 3. The average Shannon’s information index was 1.812. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.478 to 0.951. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.891. According to cluster analysis and principal component analysis, the nine L. brandtii populations could be divided into four groups by month. The genetic diversity index of the four groups was May > July > September. The analysis of molecular variance showed that the variation among individuals (88.51%) was much greater than that among the groups (5.04%) and that among the populations (6.45%). The mantel test showed no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance of L. brandtii ( R 2=0.001 6). Conclusions The L. brandtii populations sampled in Inner Mongolia had high genetic diversity. The genetic variation of L. brandtii populations was mainly observed among individuals. Seasonal variation could be the main factor affecting the genetic structure of L. brandtii populations.
2023, 34 (3): 291-297.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.002
Isolation and identification of a sandfly-borne virus (SXWX1816-2) in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, China
YIN Qi-kai, WANG Jing, FU Shi-hong, NIE Kai, LI Fan, HE Ying, XU Song-tao, WANG Huan-yu, LIANG Guo-dong
Abstract67)      PDF (3523KB)(801)      
Objective To investigate the species and prevalence of viruses carried by sandfly specimens in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, China. Methods Sandfly specimens were collected in Wuxiang county, Shanxi province in June 2018, and virus isolation was conducted using two cell lines of golden hamster kidney cells (BHK-21 cells) and Aedes albopictus egg cells (C6/36 cells) preserved in the laboratory. The positive isolate was subjected to viral RNA extraction and cDNA library preparation, followed by viral gene amplification, nucleotide sequence determination, and phylogenetic analysis. Results The SXWX1816-2 strain caused cytopathic effects in mammalian cells (BHK-21 cells), but no cytopathic effect in insect cells (C6/36 cells). The results of nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the virus genome showed that the lengths of nucleotide sequences in the coding region of M and S genes of the virus were 4 089 and 1 611 nt; the results of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of M and S genes of the virus showed that the SXWX1816-2 strain belonged to the Phlebovirus genus from the Phenuiviridae family, which shared the highest homology and closest phylogenetic relationship with Wuxiang virus (WUXV) previously isolated in China. Conclusions This study clarifies the taxonomic status of the virus (SXWX1816-2) isolated from natural sandflies in China. The results provide important basic data for the research on viruses carried by blood-sucking insects in China, especially the virus carried and transmitted by sandflies.
2023, 34 (2): 270-275.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.02.021
An analysis of mosquito population density and seasonal fluctuation monitoring results in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China, 2017-2021
JIN Bin-bin, WEI Ling-ya, CAO Yang, SHAO Han-wen, WANG Ying-hong, KONG Qing-xin
Abstract137)      PDF (1158KB)(845)      
Objective To investigate the density and seasonal fluctuations of vector mosquitoes in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China from 2017 to 2021, and to provide a scientific basis for vector control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. Methods The light trap method was used to investigate 15 districts/counties/cities in Hangzhou from April to November, 2017-2021, in accordance with the "National Vector Surveillance Program" and "Zhejiang Province Vector Surveillance Program". Excel 2016 software was used to summarize the monitoring data, and SPSS 21.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The Chi-square test was used for the difference of mosquito composition ratio in different years, and one-way ANOVA was used for the difference of mosquito density in different habitats. Results From 2017 to 2021, the mosquito density in Hangzhou was 1.99 mosquitoes/light·night, and Culex pipiens pallens/quinquefasciatus (71.90%) was the dominant species. The seasonal fluctuation trend of mosquito density generally showed a bimodal curve, peaking in July and October. There were statistical differences in densities of Cx. pipiens pallens/quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, and Armigeres subalbatus between different years (all P<0.001). In terms of various habitats, livestock barns/farms had the highest mean mosquito density (4.92 mosquitoes/light·night), and hospitals had the lowest (1.35 mosquitoes/light·night). There were statistical differences in densities of An. sinensis and Ar. subalbatus between various habitats ( F=3.581, P=0.023; F=5.431, P=0.004). Cx. pipiens pallens/ quinquefasciatus was the dominant mosquito species in various habitats, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. albopictus, and An. sinensis. Livestock barns/farms had the highest mosquito densities in terms of any of the above five species. Conclusions The mosquito density in Hangzhou is generally at a low level. Cx. pipiens pallens/ quinquefasciatus is the dominant species. In future mosquito control, livestock barns/farms should be highlighted for special attention. Local districts/cities/counties should take targeted mosquito control measures based on their density changes, distribution, and seasonal fluctuations.
2023, 34 (3): 351-355.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.012
An analysis of ecological surveillance results of dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 2017-2021
Bin-bin JIN, Ling-ya WEI, Hui JIN, Yang CAO, Ying-hong WANG, Qing-xin KONG
Abstract232)   HTML    PDF (747KB)(836)      

Objective: To investigate the density distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in different habitats and seasonal fluctuation in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China from 2017 to 2021, so as to provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and control, risk assessment, and early warning of dengue fever. Methods: According to the National Vector Surveillance Implementation Plan and the Zhejiang Provincial Vector Surveillance Plan, Aedes mosquitoes were monitored in 15 districts (counties and cities) in Hangzhou. Adult mosquitoes were monitored using the double-layered mosquito net method, and larvae were monitored using the Breteau index (BI) method. The surveillance time was set during April to November. The mosquito surveillance data of the 15 districts (counties and cities) were collected. Excel 2019 software was used for data analysis. The net trap index, BI, and container index (CI) were calculated. Categorical data were compared using the Chi-squared test. One-way analysis of variance was used for quantitative data. Results: From 2017 to 2021, the density of Ae. albopictus in Hangzhou by the double-layered mosquito net method was 2.54 mosquitoes/net·h, and no Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were captured. The density of adult mosquitoes was lowest in 2017 and highest in 2020. There was a statistical difference in the net trap index between different years (F=5.117, P=0.017). The seasonal distribution generally presented a bimodal pattern, with the peaks of mosquito densities mainly in July and October. The average BI from 2017 to 2021 was 9.18, and the peak period of the BI was during May to October. The CI showed that Ae. albopictus larvae were distributed in all kinds of water bodies. The CI differed statistically between different water bodies in the same year (all P < 0.001) and between different years in the same water body (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: Ae. albopictus density was high in Hangzhou, indicating a risk of dengue fever outbreaks and regional epidemics. It is recommended that the counties (cities, districts) take timely mosquito control measures according to the density, distribution, and seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes.

2023, 34 (4): 491-496.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.04.009
An analysis of research advances and hot spots of dengue fever in China, 2011-2021 based on CNKI
WANG Yan-ding, LI Zhi-qiang, WU Di, GONG Xin-ran, YANG Mei-tao, ZHNAG Wen-yi, WANG Yong
Abstract371)      PDF (1671KB)(1043)      
Objective To analyze the historical development and future hot spots of dengue fever research in China, and to provide a basis and reference for research, prevention and control of dengue fever in China. Methods Data were obtained from China National Knowledge Infrastructure database; "dengue fever" and "dengue virus" were used as subject terms for the search of dengue fever-related references collected (from January 1, 2011 to April 10, 2021) in the database; a total of 1 738 references were retrieved and 1 394 references were included. Excel 2019 and CiteSpace 5.6.R5 softwares were used for analysis of the 1 394 references by authors, journals, and institutions; meanwhile, visual analysis and evolution were performed on the key words, burst terms, and timelines for the development of dengue fever-related research in China. Results During 2011-2021, the number of publications on dengue fever in China could be divided into three phases with an overall upward trend (2011-2013, 2014-2016, and 2017-2021); main publication institutions were centers for disease control and prevention, universities, and research institutes; hot spots in the field of dengue fever were dengue virus, Aedes albopictus, epidemiology, and surveillance. Conclusion In recent years, there is a growing trend of performing dengue fever-related research in China, while many challenges still exist. Governments and health authorities in high-risk areas should arouse the awareness of dengue fever among common populations; research personnel should focus on the treatment, prevention and control strategies, and risk assessment of the disease, and perform in-depth studies on the surveillance, early warning, and the cost-effectiveness in prevention and control of dengue fever.
2022, 33 (1): 114-119.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.021
Epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Changzhou, Jiangsu province, China, 2012-2021
CHEN An-xi, KONG Wei-rong, TIAN Ye, TIAN Cheng, YANG Xiao, CAO Gan, LYU Xu-feng
Abstract112)      PDF (1604KB)(811)      
Objective To investigate the level, trend, and epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Changzhou, China, and to provide a basis for prevention and control of the disease. Methods The reported data of scrub typhus in Changzhou from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. We analyzed the incidence of the disease and described the regional, temporal, and population distribution characteristics of scrub typhus using descriptive epidemiology method. Results From 2012 to 2021, a total of 149 cases were reported in Changzhou, with a median annual reported incidence rate of 0.28/100 000, with the highest reported incidence rate of 0.74/100 000 in 2015 and the lowest rate of 0.04/100 000 in 2012. Cases were reported in all districts of Changzhou, with the top three being Wujin district (60, 40.27%), Xinbei district (34, 22.82%), and Liyang city (20, 13.42%). Most cases were reported between October and November in farmers, household workers, and unemployed persons, and in persons aged 45-69 years. Conclusions Scrub typhus surveillance should be strengthened, medical personnel should be trained to improve the diagnosis of scrub typhus, and health education for high-risk populations should be carried out, in order to prevent and control the occurrence and prevalence of scrub typhus.
2023, 34 (3): 372-377.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.015
Trends in the development of methods for field detection of mosquito-borne viruses
JIANG Ning, MA Ya-jun, BAI Jie, PENG Heng
Abstract92)      PDF (1078KB)(804)      
Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes during blood feeding. These viruses include more than 100 species and can cause many infectious diseases and seriously threaten human health. The accurate and rapid detection of mosquito-borne viruses in field is an important part of preventing and controlling mosquito-borne diseases. Field detection allows earlier disease prevention and control and helps control the outbreaks and epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases. However, current detection methods mainly target clinical samples and cannot be used for on-site detection of viruses in mosquito samples. This paper reviews the detection methods for mosquito-borne viruses, including the classical isolation and culture, antigen detection, and nucleic acid detection methods, as well as the new technologies developed rapidly in recent years, such as isothermal amplification and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associatied (CRISPR-Cas). The characteristics of these methods are analyzed, and the directions of developing technologies for monitoring mosquito-borne viruses in field are discussed.
2023, 34 (3): 422-427.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.024
Reported cases of vector-borne diseases in China, 2005-2020: Epidemic trend, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies
LIU Qi-yong
Abstract775)      PDF (3128KB)(1616)      
Objective To analyze the data of reported cases of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in China in 2005-2020, and to investigate the epidemic characteristics and trend of VBDs, challenges in prevention and control, and related coping strategies. Methods The descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the data of reported cases of VBDs in China in 2005-2020, and the challenges in prevention and control and related coping strategies were determined based on the epidemic characteristics of VBDs, current policies, and related literature domestic and abroad. Results A total of 905 092 cases of 14 VBDs were reported in China in 2005-2020, among which malaria, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) accounted for 66.94%, the ten notifiable VBDs accounted for 76.01%. A total of 5 076 death cases were reported, among which the death cases due to Japanese encephalitis (JE), HFRS, severe fever with thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS), and malaria accounted for 93.26%. The incidence of VBDs fluctuated and decreased in 2005-2020. The number of cases showed two significant peaks in 2006 and 2014-2015. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed a significant trend of reduction in JE, malaria, typhus, and leptospirosis ( P<0.01) and a significant trend of increase in SFTS and scrub typhus ( P<0.01). At the same time, the incidence of VBDs showed marked seasonality with a peak in October. About 2 165 districts/counties reported VBDs annually, mainly in the east of the Heihe-Tengchong line. The Mann-Kendall trend test showed that the number of districts/counties reporting such cases tended to increase with no significance ( P=0.367). Over the past 16 years, the number of cases of vector-borne diseases tended to decrease in northeast China, while this number tended to increase in southwest China. Different diseases had different ages of onset, and the peak age of onset of VBDs was 20-44 years. The male population tended to have a higher incidence rate than the female population. Conclusion The number of cases of VBDs tends to decrease with fluctuation in China, but it still remains at a relatively high level, and the epidemic area tends to expand, with continuous increases in the incidence rate or mortality rate of some VBDs. As for the new challenges in the control of VBDs, it is necessary to implement related strategies and measures including the integrated vector management and sustainable vector management, so as to further reduce the morbidity and mortality of VBDs and achieve the targets and goals of Health China and Global Vector Control Strategies.
2022, 33 (1): 1-7.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2022.01.001
Analysis of mosquito surveillance in Guizhou province,China,2017-2021
ZHANG Yan, ZHOU Jing-zhu, WANG Dan, SHI Wei-fang, XIANG Yu-long, HU Yong, LIANG Wen-qin
Abstract181)      PDF (2287KB)(800)      
Objective To investigate the species composition, population density, and seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes in human settlements and surrounding environments in Guizhou province, China, and to provide a basis for risk assessment of mosquito-borne diseases and scientific and effective vector control. Methods Mosquito surveillance data from 78 provincial vector surveillance sites in Guizhou province from 2017 to 2021 were collected to analyze mosquito species composition and compare mosquito population density and seasonal fluctuations in different years, regions, and habitats. SPSS 24.0 software was used to perform analysis of variance on the Breteau index (BI) and density of mosquitoes in different habitats for risk assessment. Results A total of 131 476 female mosquitoes were captured from 2017 to 2021, with a density of 5.82 mosquitoes/light·night. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus accounted for the highest proportion with 43.34% of the total catches, followed by Anopheles sinensis with 20.68%. Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus was the dominant mosquito species in most cities/prefectures. Zunyi had the highest composition ratio of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus with a total of 17 409 catches (61.32%). There was a statistical difference in mosquito density in different areas ( F=5.276, P<0.001). From 2017 to 2021, the highest densities of mosquitoes were all in livestock sheds, and Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus was the dominant mosquito species in all habitats. The density of mosquitoes was statistically different in different habitats ( F=114.368, P<0.001). Adult mosquito density by light trapping increased gradually from May, peaked during June to August, and decreased rapidly from September. BI showed two obvious peaks in June and August, respectively. The BI began to rise rapidly in May, and gradually declined in September and October. The BI was greater than 5 for each year. The areas of level-1 risk included Anshun, Guiyang, and Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture. The BI values in Anshun in 2019 and Guiyang in 2021 were both greater than 10, indicating a level-2 risk. Conclusions Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and An. sinensis are the dominant mosquito species in human settlements and surrounding environments in Guizhou province. The mosquito density is high in rural habitats, especially in livestock sheds, which are major mosquito breeding sites, and mosquito control should be strengthened in such environments. The peaks of mosquito activity in Guizhou province are in June and August, which may by closely related to the unique climate and rainfall conditions of Guizhou province. Mosquito control should be done before the peak breeding season of mosquitoes to reduce the density of mosquitoes and the risk of mosquito-borne virus transmission.
2023, 34 (3): 356-361.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.013
Attractive action of different chemical substances for Aedes albopictus
Fei WANG, Hao-di XU, Xin LI, Pei-en LENG, Hong-xia LIU
Abstract282)   HTML    PDF (854KB)(796)      

Objective: To select chemical substances with attractive effects on Aedes albopictus for on-field assessment, and to explore the preference of Ae. albopictus to six human odors. Methods: Under laboratory conditions, six chemical substances (1-octen-3-ol, lactic acid, myristic acid, ammonia, acetone, and ethyl acetate) were separately tested for their individual attracting effects on female Ae. albopictus at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/ml. The six substances were mixed in pairs (1∶1) at certain concentrations, and then the pairs were tested for attracting effects on female Ae. albopictus. The pair with good attractive effects was combined with lactic acid for testing. The attractant combination selected by laboratory experiments was tested for attractive action for Ae. albopictus in the field. The attracting effects of the substances or combinations on Ae. albopictus were compared using the t test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were attracted to 1-octen-3-ol at 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/ml, myristic acid at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/ml, and ethyl acetate at 0.1 mg/ml, but not to the other three substances at any concentration. The pairs of 1-octen-3-ol+myristic acid, lactic acid+myristic acid, and lactic acid+1-octen-3-ol statistically attracted Ae. albopictus compared with the control group (t=8.102, P=0.001; t=4.696, P=0.009; t=5.127, P=0.007). The combination of lactic acid+1-octen-3-ol+myristic acid statistically attracted Ae. albopictus compared with the control group (F=86.841, P < 0.001). Field testing showed significant differences in the attracting effect between lactic acid+1-octen-3-ol+myristic acid and the control (day 1: t=7.462, P=0.014; day 2: t=20.500, P < 0.001; day3: t=9.383, P=0.001). Conclusion: The combination of lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and myristic acid has attractive action for Ae. albopictus, which should be further researched in the field.

2023, 34 (4): 447-450, 496.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.04.001
National vector surveillance report on mosquitoes in China, 2019
ZHAO Ning, GUO Yu-hong, WU Hai-xia, LIU Xiao-bo, YUE Yu-juan, REN Dong-sheng, LI Gui-chang, SONG Xiu-ping, LU Liang, LIU Qi-yong
Abstract1029)      PDF (2254KB)(1609)      
Objective To investigate the species, composition, density, distribution, and seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes in China, 2019, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods The mosquito vector surveillance data of 88 surveillance sites in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) of China in 2019 were collected. The light trapping and human-baited double net trapping methods were employed to monitor adult mosquitoes, and the Breteau index (BI), scoop capture, and route methods were adopted to monitor mosquito larvae. Adult mosquitoes were monitored twice a month, and mosquito larvae were monitored once a month. Excel 2013 software was used to analyze the mosquito vector surveillance data. Results The mean density of mosquitoes was 9.81 mosquitoes/lamp·night in China in 2019. Culex pipiens pallens/Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounted for 57.73% of all captured mosquitoes, followed by Anopheles sinensis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Ae. aegypti, which accounted for 20.27%, 12.22%, 2.29%, and 0.02%, respectively. The mosquito densities in Inner Mongolia, Hubei, Qinghai, Yunnan, and Hunan provinces were relatively high, being 22.60, 21.72, 17.14, 12.71, and 10.18 mosquitoes/lamp·night, respectively. The results of seasonal fluctuation by light trapping, human-baited double net trapping, scoop capture, and route methods all indicated that the peak period of mosquito activity was from June to September, and the highest peak was in July or August. The results of the Breteau index method indicated that the peak period of Aedes larvae was from April to September. The highest density of adult mosquitoes was in livestock sheds, being 36.29 mosquitoes/lamp·night, while the highest Breteau index of mosquito larvae was in waste tyre recycling factories, being 19.25 mosquitoes/lamp·night. Conclusion The dominant mosquito specie is Cx. pipiens/Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in China. It is recommended to implement prevention and control measures such as overwintering mosquito elimination and environment management from April each year in all provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government). In 2020, the main prevention and control measure is to pay more attention to timely cleaning of the mosquito breeding sites in residential areas, waste tyre recycling factories, and waste collection areas, so as to prevent and control mosquito-borne diseases from the origins.
2020, 31 (4): 395-400.    doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2020.04.003
Genetic diversity of Culex pipiens pallens populations in Shandong province, China based on the mtDNA-COⅠgene
ZANG Chuan-hui, LI Li-ming, LIU Shuo, GONG Mao-qing, WANG Wen-qian, WANG Yi-ting, LOU Zi-wei, LEI Jing-jing, CHENG Peng, LIU Hong-mei
Abstract102)      PDF (2076KB)(782)      
Objective To investigate the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and phylogenetic relationship of Culex pipiens pallens populations in Shangdong, China. Methods Cx. pipiens pallens populations were collected in Heze, Dezhou, Liaocheng, Qingdao, Yantai, and Rizhao, Shandong province from September 2020 to September 2022. Genomic DNA was extracted from a single female adult mosquito. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COⅠ) gene sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced afterwards. The acquired sequences were compared with those in the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool on the GenBank. BioEdit 7.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequencing results. DnaSP v6 was used to analyze the genetic diversity of populations. Arlequin 3.5 was used to calculate the genetic differentiation coefficient and gene flow of populations. PopART 1.7 was used to construct the haplotype network (TCS network). Results A total of 423 sequences of 603 bp were obtained from 6 Cx. pipiens pallens populations in Shandong province. The average content of A+T bases was 69.2%, which was consistent with the AT bias of mitochondrial DNA. There were eight haplotypes in the haplotype analysis, of which haplotype H01 was the dominant haplotype. The results of mtDNA-COⅠ sequence analysis showed that the population had rich genetic diversity. The results of molecular variance analysis indicated that the genetic differentiation of Cx. pipiens pallens mainly came from within the population; there was some genetic differentiation among some populations. The results of neutrality test showed that the populations of Cx. pipiens pallens in Liaocheng and Heze experienced expansion recently. Conclusions The mtDNA-COⅠ gene can be used as a molecular marker to study the genetic diversity of Cx. pipiens pallens populations. The genetic development of Qingdao population is special compared with other geographical populations.
2023, 34 (3): 298-302.   doi: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2023.03.003
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