中国媒介生物学及控制杂志 ›› 2020, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 417-422.DOI: 10.11853/j.issn.1003.8280.2020.04.007

• 全国病媒生物监测专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

2019年全国蜱类监测报告

吴海霞, 刘小波, 岳玉娟, 任东升, 王君, 赵春春, 李贵昌, 赵宁, 宋秀平, 刘起勇   

  1. 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所媒介生物控制室, 传染病预防控制国家重点实验室, 感染性疾病诊治协同创新中心, 世界卫生组织媒介生物监测与管理合作中心, 北京 102206
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-08 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘起勇,Email:liuqiyong@icdc.cn
  • 作者简介:吴海霞,女,博士,副研究员,从事病媒生物监测及蜱媒生物学和控制研究工作,Email:wuhaixia@icdc.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技重大专项(2017ZX10303404006002,2018ZX10101002-002-011);中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所公共卫生突发应急反应机制运行项目(131031102000180007)

National surveillance report on ticks in China, 2019

WU Hai-xia, LIU Xiao-bo, YUE Yu-juan, REN Dong-sheng, WANG Jun, ZHAO Chun-chun, LI Gui-chang, ZHAO Ning, SONG Xiu-ping, LIU Qi-yong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for Vector Surveillance and Management, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
  • Received:2020-05-08 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-08-20
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No. 2017ZX10303404006002, 2018ZX10101002-002-011) and Emergency Response Mechanism Operation Program, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (No.131031102000180007)

摘要: 目的 了解我国人居环境及家畜寄生蜱类的密度和活动规律,为蜱及蜱传疾病的风险评估和科学有效防控提供依据。方法 收集整理2019年我国病媒生物监测体系中45个监测点的蜱类监测数据,分析优势蜱种类,比较不同生境和宿主、不同省份蜱类密度差异及季节消长规律。结果 2019年检获蜱类中,以血蜱属种类检获次数最多,寄生血蜱和游离血蜱捕获次数分别占捕获蜱总次数的57.31%和95.56%;不同宿主动物中,羊、牛的蜱指数较高,分别达3.06和2.72,农村和城市的犬均捕获到蜱;农村外环境捕获的蜱密度(0.83只/布旗·100 m)高于景区环境(0.32只/布旗·100 m);开展监测的不同月份中,寄生蜱指数和游离蜱密度季节消长曲线均呈双峰型,寄生蜱上半年密度较高,至7月后下降,游离蜱6月密度最高。结论 2019年蜱类监测结果显示血蜱属种类较为常见;牛、羊是蜱的优势宿主动物,而犬作为与人接触密切的家养动物,其蜱感染情况应予以关注;农村外环境是蜱的优势生境;上半年是蜱的活动高峰时段;蜱的防控应针对上述重点种类、宿主、生境和季节而进行。

关键词: 蜱, 监测, 宿主动物, 生境类型, 季节消长

Abstract: Objective To investigate the density and seasonal fluctuation of ticks captured from human habitats and body surfaces of domestic animals in China, and to provide a basis for the risk assessment and scientific prevention and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Methods The surveillance data of ticks were collected from 45 surveillance sites in the national vector surveillance system in China, 2019. The dominant tick species was analyzed, and the density and seasonal fluctuation of ticks were compared between different habitats, hosts, and provinces. Results Among the ticks captured in 2019, Haemaphysalis was the most frequently captured genus; the number of times that parasitic and questing Haemaphysalis were captured accounted for 57.31% and 95.56% of the total catch, respectively. Among various host animals, sheep and cattle had higher tick indices (3.06 and 2.72, respectively), and ticks were also captured from dogs in rural and urban areas. The tick density in surroundings of villages (0.83 ticks/flag·100 m) was higher than that in scenic areas (0.32 ticks/flag·100 m). Among different months of surveillance, the seasonal fluctuation curves of parasitic tick index and questing tick density both showed two peaks; the index of parasitic ticks was high throughout the first half of the year and decreased after July, while the density of questing ticks peaked in June. Conclusion The tick surveillance results in 2019 show that Haemaphysalis is the most frequently captured genus. Sheep and cattle are dominant host animals of those captured ticks, while dogs, as domestic animals in close contact with human beings, should be paid attention to their tick infection. Surroundings of villages are the dominant habitat of ticks. The peak period of tick infestation is found in the first half of the year. Tick prevention and control should be carried out according to the above-mentioned key species, hosts, habitats, and time periods.

Key words: Tick, Surveillance, Host animals, Habitat, Seasonal fluctuation

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