Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control
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CHINESE JOURNAL OF VECTOR BIOLOGY AND CONTROL
2019, Vol.30 Num.5
Online: 2019-10-20

Tribute to 70 years' Development of Healthcare
Original Reports
Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series Series1:Taxonomy and Fauna of Mosquito
Investigation
Review
 
Tribute to 70 years' Development of Healthcare
485 WANG Cheng-xin
Let history empower the future: a 70-year review on vector control in China
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 485-486 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 479KB] ( 24 )
 
Original Reports
487 KANG Yang, SONG Xiu-ping, ZHANG Yan-jun, LIU Qi-yong, LI Dong-mei
Establishment and application of a multiplex PCR detection method for seven rodent-borne pathogens
Objective To establish a multiplex PCR detection method for simultaneous detection of seven rodent-borne pathogens based on the QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Methods The "special marker gene" workflow in Microbial Data Analysis Cloud Platform (https://analysis.mypathogen.org/) was used to screen out the specific genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia typhi, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira interrogans, and Bartonella, and specific primers were designed based on such results. Specific chimeric primers were constructed based on temperature-switch PCR, and a multiplex PCR method was established. The QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system was used for the detection of amplification products, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of this method were evaluated. Simulated samples and field samples were tested to evaluate the detection capability of this method. Results Specificity tests showed that each pathogen had a single target band without cross reaction. The sensitivity detection limit of multi-primer single template was within the range of 11-76 copies/μl, and the sensitivity detection limit of multi-primer multiple templates was within the range of 20-200 copies/μl. Sample detection showed that the multiplex PCR detection method was comparable to the single quantitative real-time PCR method and was better than the simplex PCR method. Conclusion A multiplex PCR detection method is successfully established based on the QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system, and this highly efficient and rapid method can detect seven rodent-borne pathogens simultaneously, which provides an effective mean for the diagnosis, monitoring, and epidemiological investigation of rodent-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 487-493 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1579KB] ( 35 )
494 HAI Yan, WANG Wen-rui, FAN Meng-guang, YUE Hua, SONG Jian, ZHANG En-min, ZHANG Hui-juan, WEI Jian-chun, NIE Li
Methods for diagnosis of anthrax in outbreaks: application and recommendations
Objective To analyze and summarize the experiences and problems in diagnosis of anthrax in outbreaks, and to provide a basis for anthrax prevention and control. Methods Lesion exudates were collected from suspected anthrax patients using slides and sterile cotton swabs and venous blood samples were also collected from suspected cases. Smear microscopy, direct culture, and broth enrichment were used to isolate and culture Bacillus anthracis. Real-time PCR was used to amplify the genes such as pagA in the virulence plasmid, rpoB in the chromosome, and cap in the capsule plasmid. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect double serum anthrax antibodies. Results A total of 17 specimens were collected in the laboratory of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China, in August 2018. The time window between disease outbreak and sample collection was 1 day at least and 16 days at most, with a mean of 6 days. In the 17 suspected patients, 15 (88.24%) received antibiotic treatment before sample collection. Bacillus anthracis was isolated from 1 specimen, yielding a positive rate of 5.88% (1/17). The real-time PCR analysis of all the specimens gave a positive rate of 41.18% (7/17). The results of ELISA showed a positive rate of 83.33% (10/12) for the protective antibody. Conclusion The optimal time to collect samples is the key to the early identification of outbreak. Real-time PCR, which is a fast and sensitive approach for diagnosis, is recommended for application in anthrax outbreak. Double serum specimens should be collected from all the suspected patients to increase the diagnosis rate.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 494-497 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 566KB] ( 16 )
498 PENG Cheng, HU Zhu-min, LI Yan-jun, GUAN Peng, HUANG De-sheng
Epidemic simulation of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shenyang, China: a kinetic study based on differential equations
Objective To establish a kinetic model for rat-to-rat and rat-to-human transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), to simulate HFRS epidemics in Shenyang, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of HFRS. Methods The incidence rates of HFRS in humans, virus-carrying rates among rodents, and density of rodents in Shenyang from 1984 to 2017 were collected. To simulate HFRS epidemics, a susceptible-infected model and a susceptible-infected-recovered model were established for rat-to-rat and rat-to-human transmission, respectively. Results From 1984 to 2017, the mean annual incidence rate of HFRS was 3.88/100 000 in Shenyang. From 1984 to 2013, the mean annual density of rodents and virus-carrying rate among rodents were 6.93% and 4.79%, respectively, in Shenyang. Compared with the actual incidence rate of HFRS, the incidence rate predicted by differential equations had a mean absolute error of 0.28. The expansion of vaccination coverage could lead to a lower incidence rate. If the vaccination coverage was expanded from 40.00% to 50.00%, the mean incidence of HFRS in Shenyang from 2005 to 2017 would decrease from 1.97/100 000 to 1.91/100 000. Conclusion Differential equations can be used to simulate the transmission dynamics of HFRS in Shenyang. Vaccination is an effective way to prevent HFRS. Vaccination coverage should be expanded to protect people susceptible to HFRS.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 498-501 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 803KB] ( 21 )
502 WANG Xiao-jun, CAI Yu-cheng, JIA Xu-zhen, CHEN Pei, YANG Hai-peng
Correlation between Japanese encephalitis epidemic and mosquito vector surveillance results in Longnan, Gansu province, China
Objective To investigate the composition and dynamic change of mosquito species in Longnan, Gansu province, China and analyze the correlation between Japanese encephalitis (JE) onset and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and to provide a scientific basis for JE prevention and control. Methods The distribution characteristics of JE cases and mosquito vector surveillance results were analyzed using descriptive epidemiology. The relationship between JE incidence and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus density was determined by linear correlation. Results A total of 215 cases of JE were reported in Longnan between 2017 and 2018, and the mean annual incidence rate was 4.11/100 000. JE onset occurred mostly between July and September. JE was observed mainly in adults (87.44% of individuals ≥ 20 years old) and in peasants from rural areas (91.16%). Mosquito vector surveillance results showed that Cx. pipiens pallens was the dominant female mosquito species that was entrapped, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, the dominant mosquito species varied with habitat. Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species in residential areas, parks, hospitals, and peasant households (>75.00%), whereas Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was common in livestock sheds (61.51%) and peasant households (9.85%). In 2017 and 2017-2018, the monthly monitored density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was positively correlated with the number of JE cases one month later (r=0.983, P=0.001; r=0.937, P=0.006). Conclusion The distribution, density time, and seasonal variation of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus are closely related to JE onset. Understanding the correlation between the change in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus density and JE onset will provide insights into the early warning for JE prevention and control.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 502-505 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 628KB] ( 23 )
506 LI Hong-bing, TIAN Hui, FU Hai-long, HE Wei, HU Xiao-qian, GAO Juan, YAN Chuan-yuan
An analysis of spatiotemporal clustering of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Baoji, Shaanxi province, China
Objective To analyze the spatiotemporal clustering of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Baoji, Shaanxi province, China, from 1984 to 2017, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFRS. Methods A total of 12 599 HFRS cases were reported in Baoji during 1984-2017 with an annual incidence of 10.55/100 000. The incidence data of HFRS in Baoji from 1984 to 2017 were collected to establish a database. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analyses were performed using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Furthermore, a spatiotemporal scan analysis was conducted with SaTScan 9.0 software. Results The fatality rate of HFRS gradually decreased in Baoji and the high-incidence areas were changed continuously, which had a tendency to spread to the north. The global autocorrelation analysis demonstrated spatial clustering in 1994-1998 (Z=2.137, P=0.003) and 1999-2003 (Z=2.716, P=0.007), the hotspots in the high-value clustering areas were Meixian, Fufeng, and Qishan counties. Spatiotemporal scan analysis showed that a significant spatiotemporal clustering pattern of HFRS was observed in Baoji. Conclusion A significant spatiotemporal clustering pattern of HFRS is present in Baoji, and effective prevention and control measures should be developed in the areas with high risk of HFRS to prevent the spread of the disease.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 506-509 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 2816KB] ( 9 )
510 ZHANG Xiao-yu, DU Hong-zhong, KOU Guang-ping, ZHANG Hui-ping
Epidemiological characteristics of Japanese encephalitis in Baoji city of Shaanxi province, 1952-2017
Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Baoji, China. Methods The data of JE cases in Baoji from 1952 to 2017 and the surveillance data of acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) from 2013 to 2017 were collected. The descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the incidence trend and seasonal/regional/population distribution of JE and the detection of JE IgM in AMES surveillance. The χ2 test was used for the analysis of age composition, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 9 807 cases of JE were reported in Baoji from 1952 to 2017, with a mean annual incidence rate of 6.06/100 000; a total of 1 093 death cases were reported, resulting in a mortality rate of 11.15%. The highest incidence rate of 23.06/100 000 was observed in 1975, and the peak of disease onset was in July to August (93.78%). From 1995 to 2004, JE often occurred in students (41.08%), and the patients aged <15 years accounted for 57.24%; Since 2005, when JE vaccine had been included in routine immunization, JE often occurred in peasants (73.36%), and the patients aged <15 years accounted for 15.28%. Conclusion The incidence of JE shows a significant seasonality in Baoji; after the use of JE vaccine, JE occurs less frequently in children less than 15 years old, but mostly in peasants.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 510-513 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1334KB] ( 29 )
514 WAN Qing, SONG Nuan, HUANG Zhen-dong, XUE Zhi-jing, ZHUANG Gui-fen, ZHANG Rui-ling, XU Yong-yu, ZHANG Zhong
Effect of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride on energy substances in the larvae and pupae of Musca domestica
Objective To investigate the effect of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride on the content of energy substances in the larvae and pupae of Musca domestica. Methods From June to September, 2013, the laboratory population of M. domestica was used for the experiment. The newly hatched larvae were divided into control group (fed with normal forage) and three experimental groups (treated with forage containing 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, respectively). The grinding method was used for the sampling of energy substances in the 1st instar larvae, and hemolymph was collected from the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae and pupae. The Coomassie brilliant blue method was used to measure the content of proteins, anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry was used to measure the content of total sugars, and phosphoric acid-vanillin chromogenic reaction was used to measure the content of lipids. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between groups; the t-test was used for comparison between two groups. Results The content of proteins in the larvae and pupae in the 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride group decreased to a maximum of 4.00% and 10.00% of that in the control group; the content of lipids in the larvae in the 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride groups decreased to 75.00%, 65.00%, and 50.00% of that in the control group, while the content of lipids in the pupae in the 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% groups decreased to 85.00%, 75.00%, and 50.00% of that in the control group; the content of total sugars in the 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% groups decreased to 80%, 60%, and 30% of that in the control group. After the larvae and pupae of M. domestica were fed with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, their caloric values decreased with the increase in the concentration of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (F=12.551, P<0.001). The control group had higher caloric values of the larvae and pupae than the 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride groups (t=13.093, 11.294, 8.601, all P<0.001); the 0.1% group had higher caloric values than the 0.3% and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride groups (t=10.290, 7.842, all P<0.001); the 0.3% group had higher caloric values than the 0.5% group (t=6.919, P<0.001). Conclusion Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride can reduce the synthesis of energy substances (proteins, lipids, and total sugars) in the larvae and pupae of M. domestica and thus reduce their caloric values, thus effects the individual development and population multiplication of M. domestica.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 514-518 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 880KB] ( 15 )
519 DUAN Xing-de, HE Zhi-hai, GAO Zi-hou, JIANG Bao-gui, GONG Zheng-da, ZHANG Yun, SHAO Zong-ti, JIANG Jia-fu, SUN Yi, LIU Hong-bo, YAO Ming-guo, WANG Fan, DU Chun-hong
Detection and identification of Borrelia sinica in Ixodes ovatus from the border region of Yunnan province, China
Objective To identify Borrelia species in ticks collected in Gengma Dai and Va Autonomous county of Yunnan province using molecular biology detection methods, and to provide a basis for the investigation of local Lyme disease. Methods DNA was extracted from individual free-living ticks collected in Gengma county of Yunnan province in April 2016, and Borrelia DNA was identified by nested-PCR amplification of the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Positive samples were further tested by 16S rRNA amplification and verified with the flagellin (FLA) gene. Results A total of 94 ticks belonging to 3 species were captured, and 14 ticks (14.89%) were positive for Borrelia. All Borrelia-positive ticks were Ixodes ovatus, and there was no significant difference in the rate of Borrelia positivity between sexes (χ2=0.746, P=0.388). Ixodes acutitarsus and Dermacentor auratus tested negative for Borrelia. The sequences of the three target gene fragments identified from Borrelia were 98%-99% homologous to those in B. sinica. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterial species identified in this study clustered with B. sinica detected in Sichuan and Anhui provinces, China, and was close to B. japonica but distinct from B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana. Conclusion Ixodes ovatus collected from Gengma county carries B. sinica. The types and distribution of hosts and vectors of B. sinica and its pathogenicity in humans warrant further investigation.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 519-523 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1767KB] ( 20 )
524 LIU Nian, ZHOU Xiao-jie, QI Guang-hao, LI Mei, QIU Xing-hui
Detection of knockdown resistance mutations in a Cimex lectularius field population in Beijing, China
Objective To analyze genetic mutations, predict the level of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the bedbug Cimex lectularius and provide a guide for bed bug control in this region. Methods Partial sequences of vgsc gene that encodes the target of pyrethroid insecticides (voltage gated sodium channel) were obtained by DNA sequencing, and the knockdown resistance-related mutations were examined. Results The six bed bugs collected on site were found to have genetic mutations at codons 419 and 925, leading to double amino acid substitutions (V419L and L925I) with a frequency of 100%. Conclusion All the investigated bed bugs carry kdr mutations at positions 419 and 925 of the voltage gated sodium channel, predicting that this bed bug population has a higher level of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 524-527 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 2572KB] ( 7 )
528 LI Xiao-ning, LU Ying, LIU Yuan, JIANG Yi-min, LIANG Xue-ying, LIU Jie, ZHANG Xu, ZHAO Zheng-yang, LUO Lei, YANG Zhi-cong
A study of mobile information platform for real-time vector surveillance, prevention, and control established based on internet
Objective To establish an internet-based mobile information platform for real-time vector surveillance, prevention, and control, and to save manpower and material resources, standardize data report format, and improve data quality and utilization rate. Methods Using browser/server architecture, Java EE as an integrated development environment, and Eclipse 4.5.0 software as a program development tool, the information of meteorological conditions, geographical locations, and epidemics of vector-borne diseases, as well as the information on system efficacy in collecting 8 vector-borne disease indices, were collected. Results The mobile information platform for real-time vector surveillance, prevention, and control can be accessed through both mobile internet browser login and mobile application (APP). The mobile terminal is used for task creation and field surveillance, and the web terminal is used for revising, browsing, and generating surveillance reports. It mainly achieves four major functions, i.e., vector surveillance, special Aedes albopictus surveillance at epidemic spots, routine Ae. albopictus surveillance, and surveillance report generation. Users can choose from six roles, including municipal, district, and township investigators and administrators. Paired t-test results showed that the time spent by the platform on index recording was significantly less for all the four indices compared with the traditional method (t=3.624, 3.528, 2.863, and 3.165, respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusion The mobile information platform for real-time vector surveillance, prevention, and control can ensure the timeliness and accuracy of surveillance data transmission, simplify field investigation process, and guarantee the quality of field investigation.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 528-532 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1710KB] ( 18 )
533 SUN Wen-kai, HUANG Kun, LI Gui-chang, LIU Xiao-bo, SONG Xiu-ping, WU Hai-xia, REN Dong-sheng, YUE Yu-juan, ZHAO Ning, LIU Qi-yong, GUO Yu-hong
Effect of clarified lime water on Aedes albopictus at different developmental stages
Objective To observe the effect of clarified lime water on Aedes albopictus at different stages of larval development in the laboratory and determine the effect of quicklime in the prevention and control of Ae. albopictus, and to provide basic data for the application of quicklime in the prevention and control of Ae. albopictus. Methods A certain number of Ae. albopictus at different developmental stages (eggs, 1 st to 4 th instar larvae, and pupae) were separately reared in clarified lime water, and the hatching rate, mortality rate, eclosion rate, and development time for each stage were recorded. Meanwhile, the development of Ae. albopictus in different feeding environments and different stages was analyzed and compared by taking the mosquitoes reared in overnight tap water as a control. Results The hatching rate of Ae. albopictus eggs in the experimental group was 82.22%, and that in the control group was 94.44%; the hatching rate of Ae. albopictus eggs was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (χ2=6.523, P=0.011). According to the t-test, the hatching time of eggs was significantly longer in the experimental group than in the control group. The mortality rate of the 1st to 4th instar larvae was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (χ2=4.624, 234.994, and 284.312, P=0.032, <0.003, and <0.003); particularly, the mortality rate of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae was significantly increased in the experimental group. There was no significant difference in eclosion rate between the experimental group and the control group (χ2=0.593, P=0.441). Conclusion Clarified lime water has a significant inhibitory effect on the development of Ae. albopictus, which increases with the age of mosquito larvae. The results imply that quicklime can be possibly used for the prevention and control of Ae. albopictus. The field control effect of quicklime on Ae. albopictus needs further verification.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 533-535 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 403KB] ( 19 )
536 CHEN Hong, LYU Min, XING Lian-di, DENG Hai-ping, TENG Zhi-xiang, LENG Pei-en
A study of the breeding characteristics of Aedes albopictus in different housing types in Jing'an district of Shanghai, China
Objectve To investigate the breeding characteristics of Aedes albopictus in different housing types in Jing'an district, Shanghai, China, and to provide a basis for scientific surveillance and control. Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to select residents. Household surveys of different housing types were carried out, and differences in Breteau index (BI) and container index (CI), types of accumulated water, and indoor and outdoor distribution were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Pearson χ2 test. Results A total of 678 old public housing households were surveyed in 14 streets (towns) in Jing'an district of Shanghai in August 2018, with a BI of 19.91 and a CI of 21.23%. There were 166 new housing households, with a BI of 4.82 and a CI of 6.61%. There was no significant difference in BI between them (Z=0.975, P=0.329), and old public housing had a significantly higher CI than new housing (χ2=14.172, P=0.000). The indoor and outdoor accumulated water of old public housing accounted for 56.92% and 43.08%, respectively, and that of new housing accounted for 72.73% and 27.27%, respectively. The outdoor accumulated water of old public housing was significantly different from that of new housing (χ2=10.539, P=0.001); the indoor CI of old public housing was 5.52%, and that of new housing was 2.27%, with no significant difference between them (χ2=1.610, P=0.204). The outdoor CI of old public housing was 41.97%, which was significantly higher than that (18.18%) of new housing (χ2=6.980, P=0.008); the outdoor CIs of both old public housing and new housing were significantly higher than the indoor CIs (χ2=123.892, P=0.000; χ2=9.838, P=0.000). Old public housing had a large amount and diverse types of indoor and outdoor accumulated water, and high proportions of potted aquatic plants, water storage containers, and flowerpot supports, while new housing had an obviously smaller amount of water accumulation than old public housing, and had few types of accumulated water, predominantly bonsai aquatic plants or indoor water. Conclusion The number, types, and positive rate of mosquito breeding sites are significantly higher in old public housing than in new housing, so old public housing is a disaster-stricken area for vector monitoring and control. We suggest that prevention and control measures should be carried out according to local conditions in the future according to the humanistic characteristics of residents of different housing types.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 536-539 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 680KB] ( 19 )
540 FENG Yan, RUAN Wei, PAN Jin-ren, YU Ke-gen, CHEN Hua-liang, YAO Li-nong
An analysis of surveillance results of malaria vectors in Zhejiang province, China, from 2012 to 2017
Objective To investigate the population and density variation of malaria vectors in Zhejiang province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for malaria control strategy in post-elimination stage. Methods From 2012 to 2017, 14 to 18 malaria vector surveillance sites were set up in Zhejiang province. Mosquito population surveillance with the lamp trapping method from sunrise to sunset for 2 days (3 days in 2016-2017) was conducted once in each August. Density surveillance with the overnight human trapping method (usually from19:00 to 07:00) was conducted once in the beginning and late of July, August and September (from May to October in some surveillance sites from 2016 to 2017). All the surveillance spots were set between residential areas and mosquito breeding sites. All Anopheles mosquitoes captured were frozen and dead, and then morphologically identified, counted, and reported. Excel 2013 software was used to analyze the surveillance data. "Dituhui" website was used to draw the surveillance site distribution map online and R 3.5.1 software was used to draw the heat map. Results The results of lamp trapping method for mosquito population surveillance showed that the single vector of malaria transmission in Zhejiang province was Anopheles sinensis. Human trapping density surveillance showed that An. sinensis had been active in some areas in early May, and the density of An. sinensis peaked in late July 3.63 only/(person·h) and dropped to the lowest in late October 0.02 only/(person·h). The peak night activity of An. sinensis in Zhejiang province occurred between 20:00 and 21:00. According to the heat map analysis, although the density of An. sinensis was generally low in late September, the density rebounded in some areas in some years, and the peak time of density had been advanced to May and June at some surveillance sites in the south of Zhejiang province. Conclusion As the single vector of malaria in Zhejiang province, An. sinensis continuously exists, which makes the local transmission of malaria at potential risk. Therefore, continuous and standard vector surveillance needs to be consecutively carried out, and molecular biological technique should be used in the study of mosquito population and insecticide resistance related genes in the future.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 540-544 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1657KB] ( 16 )
545 TAN Yu-chen, HAN Tian-hu, XU Guo-cheng, WEI Yan-ming, CAI Zhi-yuan, WANG Chan, YAO Bao-hui, GUO Huai-liang, SU Jun-hu
The determination study of Eospalax baileyi to bromadiolone and palatability of bromadiolone for E. baileyi in the eastern margin of the Qilian Mountains
Objective To determine the sensitivity of Eospalax baileyi to bromadiolone (an anticoagulant rodenticide) and the palatability of bromadiolone for E. baileyi in the eastern margin of the Qilian Mountains, and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of E. baileyi in the field using bromadiolone as a rodenticide. Methods During July to August, 2018, non-invasive live cage trapping was used to capture E. baileyi in Tianzhu area in the eastern margin of the Qilian Mountains; the E. baileyi was then individually caged and fed in a laboratory environment. In a non-selective food intake test, 0.000 5% bromadiolone bait was continuously provided to the E. baileyi for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, and food intake and death of the E. baileyi were recorded. Bliss calculating program in SPSS 19.0 software was used for regression analysis and fitting, and the half-lethal feeding period (LFP50) and the 99% lethal feeding period (LFP99) were calculated. The t-test for grouped data was applied to analyze the sensitivity and palatability. Results There was a decreasing trend in the food intake of E. baileyi, with no significant difference observed in the sensitivity of E. baileyi to bromadiolone between sexes (t=-1.232, P=0.329). The estimated values of LFP50 and LFP99 were 0.492 day and 11.897 days, respectively. The death peak of E. baileyi appeared on the sixth to the ninth day after intake of the poison bait. The first and second palatability of 0.000 5% bromadiolone for E. baileyi was 0.66 and 0.77, respectively, both of which showed a good food intake coefficient and a laboratory-corrected deratization rate of 100%. Conclusion Bromadiolone is highly toxic and palatable to the E. baileyi in Tianzhu area in the eastern margin of the Qilian Mountains with no resistance observed; therefore, 0.000 5% bromadiolone may be used to control E. baileyi effectively in this area.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 545-549 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 742KB] ( 15 )
550 ZHANG Jia-yong, WANG Chun-yu, DING Jun, BAI Yu-yin, ZHANG Ji-bo, LI Zhi, GUAN Yu-hui, SUN Jin-zhong
Analysis of surveillance on cockroach in Liaoning province from 2012 to 2016
Objective To master the cockroach density, infestation, seasonal variation and population distribution, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of cockroach prevention and control. Methods A total of 70 sites suitable for cockroach breeding and resting in 14 cities and towns of Liaoning province from January to December 2012 were selected for surveillance by stick-capture method. Descriptive analysis was performed on all data using Excel 2010 software. Results A total of 47 647 cockroaches were captured from 2012 to 2016. The predominant species was Blattella germanica (97.28%). The total density was 0.48 insects per sheet. The total infestation was 12.75%. The highest cockroach density and infestation appeared in farm produce market, the lowest appeared in hotels. Seasonal variations of cockroach density from 2013 to 2015 showed a single peak curve, but the trend in 2012 showed a double peak curve. Seasonal variations of farm produce markets showed a single peak curve, but the trend of restaurants and hospitals showed a double peak curve. The cockroach infestation showed a single curve over the years. The highest peaks of density and infestation occurred between July and August. Conclusion The density of cockroach showed a slight rise from 2012 to 2016, but the infestation showed a slight downward. The farm produce market should be the focus of the cockroach prevention and control. Combined with the seasonal fluctuation trend of cockroach density and infestation in different habitats, comprehensive prevention should be taken during the peak time to reduce cockroach density and control diseases they transmit.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 550-553 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 819KB] ( 15 )
 
Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series Series1:Taxonomy and Fauna of Mosquito
554 LI Hai-dong, DUOJI Zhuo-ma, ZHUOMA Yang-jin, ZHAXI Zhuo-ma, ZHANG Rui, YANG Xiao-dong, YANG Gui-rong, WANG Jian, ZHOU Hong-ning, GONG Zheng-da
Taxonomy and fauna of Culicidae in Tibet Autonomous Region, China VⅡ. First discovery of Aedes subgenus and species in Tibet
Objective To investigate the fauna of mosquitoes in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Methods From August to September, 2017, investigation and sampling, specimen preparation, and taxonomic identification were performed for mosquito larvae in various types of breeding sites in southeastern Tibet. Results A batch of Aedes specimens were collected in Motuo and was identified as subgenus Aedes and Ae. (Aed.) mubiensis Luh et Shih, 1958, which were discovered for the first time in Tibet Autonomous Region and were the new records of local subgenus and species. Aedes (Aed.) mubiensis was once found only in Guangxi, Guizhou and Sichuan in southwestern China. It is similar to Ae. (Aed.) esoensis in northeastern China. However, the two species can be distinguished according to the shape of the end of male basimere, the number of long bristles near the middle inner margin, and the width of the wrinkle zone on the inner margin of dorsal base.This article briefly describes and reports the main morphological characteristics, distribution area, breeding environment, and male terminalia of this subgenus and mosquito species. Conclusion Up to now, there are 17 known species of Aedes in Tibet.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 554-556 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 733KB] ( 22 )
 
Investigation
557 CAI Wen-feng, LUO Jian-long, SU Li-qiong, ZHANG Si-xiang, LI Shou-qin
Composition and community diversity of small mammals fleas in the plague foci in Jianchuan county, Yunnan province, China
Objective To investigate the composition and community diversity of fleas from small mammals in the natural plague foci in Jianchuan county, Yunnan province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for plague prevention and control. Methods Plague surveillance was carried out in Jianchuan county from 2008 to 2017 according to the plague surveillance program. Rat fleas were combed from small mammals captured and were then subject to species identification based on their morphological characteristics. The community ecology method was used to calculate flea species composition, diversity index, homogeneity index, dominance index, and richness index of a community. The data were statistically analyzed by Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 software. Results A total of 15 602 rat fleas were captured in the study period, which belonged to 7 species, 7 genera, and 3 families; among them were Ctenophthalmus quadratus (52.10%), Frontopsylla spadix spadix (28.98%), Neopsylla specialis specialis (17.72%), Stenischia humilis (0.88%), Leptopsylla segnis (0.27%), Macrostylophora euteles (0.04%), and Monopsyllus anisus (0.01%). The rat fleas had a diversity index of 0.316 2-1.036 2, a homogeneity index of 0.176 5-0.747 4, a dominance index of 0.378 3-0.872 3, and a richness index of 0.455 0-0.555 1; rat fleas from Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri were dominant. Conclusion In the plague foci in Jianchuan county, C. quadratus is the dominant species among the rat fleas, and rat fleas from E. miletus and A. chevrieri are dominant.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 557-560 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 626KB] ( 18 )
561 YIN Xiao-ping, LIU Ge, WANG An-dong, YAN Bin, BAI Cen, TIAN Yan-he, ZHANG Zhao-guan, ZHAO Shan-shan, WANG Yuan-zhi
Application of DNA barcoding technique in the molecular identification of Siphonaptera
Objective To conduct molecular identification of the common Siphonaptera species from the Alataw pass of China-Kazakhstan border based on the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (CO Ⅰ) gene. Methods In May 2017, parasitic Siphonaptera on the body surface of rodents was collected from the Alataw pass of China-Kazakhstan border. DNA was extracted after morphological identification. The mitochondrial CO Ⅰ gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by BLAST, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using MAGE 6.0 software. Results The morphological and molecular biological identification showed 100% consistency between Echidnophaga oschanini and Ctenocephalides felis felis. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial CO Ⅰ sequences of Xenopsylla minax and Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps were reported for the first time in the world. Molecular biological identification and morphological identification of the four species of Siphonaptera were in good agreement. The four species of Siphonaptera in China-Kazakhstan border were highly similar to Siphonaptera species in other countries. Conclusion DNA barcoding technique can identify the species of Siphonaptera effectively and provide a scientific basis for rapid and accurate identification of host and control of foreign medical vectors at ports.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 561-563 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 856KB] ( 20 )
564 LI Bing-hui, MA Xiao-fang, WANG Wei, SONG Fu-cheng, XUE Jian-jie, JIANG Hong-rong
Comparative study on mosquito trapping efficacy between two mosquito trapping lamps
Objective To compare the efficacy of mosquito trapping between CO2 and light trapping lamps and to provide a basis for effective mosquito surveillance. Methods From August to October, 2018, different habitats in Qingdao were randomly selected, CO2 and light trapping lamps were simultaneously used for mosquito surveillance, and captured adult mosquitoes were collected and classified. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mosquito density, and the χ2 test was used to compare the proportion of mosquito species. Results Both trapping lamps were able to trap mosquitoes, and the mosquito density determined by CO2 trapping lamp (25.00/lamp·night) was significantly higher than that determined by light trapping lamp (4.50/lamp·night) (Z=-2.915, P=0.004). The proportions of mosquitoes and female mosquitoes captured by CO2 trapping lamp (94.90% and 99.68%) were significantly higher than the proportions of those captured by light trapping lamp (11.94% and 77.27%) (χ2=2 268.789, P=0.000; χ2=315.951, P=0.000), and the mosquito species compositions captured by the two mosquito trapping lamps were significantly different (χ2=18.903, P=0.000). Conclusion Both CO2 and light trapping lamps can be used for mosquito surveillance, and researchers can choose one or more surveillance tools according to the study objective to comprehensively analyze and survey the density, population, and seasonal variation of adult mosquitoes.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 564-566 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 394KB] ( 16 )
567 ZHU Xin-hong, WU Yin-ping, CHEN Mo-jiao
Population density and distribution characteristics of Aedes albopictus in 2017 in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, China
Objective To investigate the population density of Aedes albopictus in different months in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, China, and analyze its influencing factors, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases in Yiwu. Methods The villages or communities in four streets in Yiwu were selected in different geographical locations as surveillance sites. Mosquito surveillance was carried out once a month in the middle of the month from April to November in 2017, with 100 households being surveyed each time. Breteau index (BI), container index (CI) and house index (HI), were calculated to analyze the population densities of Ae. albopictus in different habitats and containers. SPSS 24.0 software was used to conduct chi-square test to analyze the breeding status in different containers. Results Mean BI was 13.75 in Yiwu from April to November, 2017. The BI in July and October was high (18.00 and 23.00, respectively), and the BI in all months was greater than 5 except for that in April. The containers with Ae. albopictus were mainly cisterns, tanks, basins, and unused containers with water, tires, miniascape, and aquatic plants, among which, the CI of miniascape and aquatic plants was highest and up to 20.00%. However, there was no significant difference in the positive rate between different types of containers with water (χ2=6.373, P=0.383). The mean BI in all habitats was greater than 5, of which, the commercial houses around residential buildings and high-end villas had the highest BI (44.00 and 26.37, respectively). Conclusion The population density of Ae. albopictus was high in Yiwu in 2017. Comprehensive measures should be adopted to clean up the breeding sites of Ae. albopictus to reduce the risk of local outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 567-569 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 918KB] ( 15 )
570 HE Ya-ming, TU Tao-tian, SHEN Tian-zhanhong, XIAO Han-sen, FENG Shao-quan, YANG Xue-fan, YE Sheng, YU Zhen, CHEN Shuang, WANG Yi-qi, TANG Yun, LUO Fei, JI Heng-qing, LIU Qi-yong
An investigation of the distribution of mosquito populations in Chongqing, China, 2018
Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito populations in Chongqing, China, and to provide a basis for the development of mosquito control measures. Methods From August to October, 2018, eight districts/counties in Chongqing were selected according to their geographical locations for field investigation in both urban and rural areas. Mosquitoes were captured by trapping lamps, mosquito data were collected and descriptively analyzed by Excel 2010 and ArcGIS 10.60 softwares, and the rank sum test was used by SPSS 25.0 software for different mosquito species density in urban and rural areas. Results A total of 5 species of mosquitoes in 4 genera were collected, and the total mosquito density was 14.83 only/(lamp·hour). The urban mosquito density was 0.67 only/(lamp·hour), and the dominant species were Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus; the rural mosquito density was 18.69 only/(lamp·hour), and the dominant species were Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Armigeres subalbatus. Rongchang area had the highest total mosquito density, and the density of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (Z=-3.019, P=0.003). Conclusion The total mosquito density is relatively high in Chongqing, and appropriate mosquito control measures should be taken according to local conditions to prevent and control the occurrence of mosquito-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 570-573 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 3826KB] ( 7 )
574 DU Guo-yi, YAN Dong, WANG Zhi-yu, GAO Shao-kun
Risk assessment system of plague in Hebei province and surrounding areas
Objective To establish a plague risk assessment system in Hebei province and surrounding areas, and to provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and control of plague. Methods The past data and research findings of plague prevention and control in Hebei province and surrounding areas were organized. The Delphi method was used to determine plague risk factors and their weight. A risk assessment index system was established. Non-parametric Kendall coordination coefficient W test was used for testing the consistency of expert opinions. Results A total of 17 experts participated in two rounds of consultation. The questionnaire recovery rates were 94.12% and 100%, respectively. A plague risk assessment system of Hebei province and surrounding areas, including 7 primary and 40 secondary indicators, was finally established after two rounds of Delphi expert questionnaire survey. The experts' familiarity with the indicators was scored as 0.888 9 with a standard deviation of 0.657 5. The expert authority index was 0.885 1. Experts were familiar with the indicators and presented an authoritative study. In the two rounds of expert consultation, the Kendall's coefficient of concordance test indicated significant necessity of the primary and secondary indicators and significant availability of the secondary indicators; expert opinions were well coordinated (all P<0.05). Conclusion The system established in this study meets the requirements of plague risk assessment in Hebei province and surrounding areas, which can provide technical support for prevention and control of plague.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 574-577 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 482KB] ( 14 )
578 YAN Chang-fu
A data quality analysis of the plague surveillance and report network in Shanxi province, China, from 2005 to 2017
Objective To conduct a quality analysis of the surveillance data from 2005 to 2017 for exploring effective measures to improve the plague surveillance and report network in Shanxi province, China. Methods Network report data including the information of 12 plague monitoring sites, plague serological test result, plague host animal density, and surveys of rat body flea and rat nest flea were collected and collated, and the network reporting rate was calculated. SPSS 19.0 software was used to conduct χ2 test and the data analysis. Results The reporting rate of plague surveillance site information network reached 100% after 2007. The reporting rate of serological test result network was 27.34% in 2005, and reached 100% after 2015. The reporting rates of plague host animal density surveillance network in 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2014 ranged from 67.69% to 97.90%, and those in the remaining years were 100%. The reporting rate of Spermophilus dauricus body flea surveillance network was 43.63% in 2005, maintained at a relatively high level from 2006 to 2013, and reached 100% from 2014 to 2017. The reporting rate of Meriones meridianus body flea surveillance network was 15.38% in 2005, and reached 100% from 2016 to 2017. The reporting rates of S. dauricus and M. meridianus nest flea surveillance networks ranged from 33.33% to 80.28% in 2005-2006, and reached 100% in the remaining years except 2012. Conclusion From 2005 to 2017, the reporting rate of plague surveillance data network in Shanxi province showed an increasing trend year by year, and finally reached 100%. However, underreporting, re-reporting, and misreporting were found in some surveillance sites, and it is still necessary to continue to strengthen training and supervision to further improve the quality of network report data and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of plague in Shanxi province.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 578-581 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 451KB] ( 13 )
582 LAN Xue-mei, ZHU Jin, LI Hua-chang, GAO Yang, ZOU Jian-hong, TAN Li-tao, PU Jin-wen, YANG Ming-dong
An investigation of the resistance of Aedes aegypti to 11 insecticides in key areas of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China
Objective To investigate the resistance level of Aedes aegypti to 11 insecticides in the key areas of dengue fever in Yunnan province, China. Methods From August 2017 to September 2017, the pupae or larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in Jinghong city and Mengding town, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County, and then they were bred to the first generation (F1) in the laboratory. The resistance of the first generation to 11 insecticides was determined by the filter paper contact method. Results The 24 h corrected mortality rates of adult Ae. aegypti in Jinghong city to permethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, α-cypermethrin, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur, fipronil, and DDT were 0.92%, 0, 3.19%, 91.40%, 20.43%, 85.86%, 100%, 97.71%, 96.67%, 99.41%, and 1.96%, respectively, and KT50 was >60, >60, 53.83, 45.39, 48.25, >60, >60, 36.34, 32.13, >60 min, and not calculable, respectively. The 24 h mortality rates of adult Ae. aegypti in Mengding town to the above mentioned insecticides were 1.43%, 3.01%, 11.35%, 60.27%, 5.96%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 95.68%, 95.95%, and 0.74%, respectively, and the corresponding KT50 was >60, >60, 26.48, 16.35, 22.67, >60, >60, 35.03, 40.17, >60 min, and not calculable, respectively. Conclusion Aedes aegypti in Jinghong city and Mengding town have developed different degrees of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT insecticides, but still present high sensitivity to malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, bendiocarb and fipronil. Measures should be carried out accordingly to limit or stop the use of insecticides to which Ae. aegypti has already developed resistance.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 582-585 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 492KB] ( 22 )
586 AN Peng-tian, SHI Kai-wen, LIU Zi-huan, CHEN Bao-xi, LIU Guo-ping
Species composition and seasonality of blood-sucking midges in Bohai New Area, Cangzhou, Hebei province, China, in 2018
Objective To investigate the species composition and seasonality of blood-sucking midges in Bohai New Area of Cangzhou, Hebei province, China. Methods Blood-sucking midges were collected in Bohai New Area using light traps and insect nets from April to October, 2018, with slaughterhouses, quarantine farms, henhouses, hog houses, stables and residential areas as the selected observation points. Results A total of 5 107 blood-sucking midges, belonging to 1 genus and 7 species, were collected in Bohai New Area, of which Culicoides humeralis was recorded for the first time in Hebei province, and the dominant species was C. homotomus (72.22%). The species composition of blood-sucking midges varied between different places and months. The active season of blood-sucking midges was from the second half of April to the first half of October, and there were two peaks:the first half of June (53.72 inds/lamp) and the second half of August (71.88 inds/lamp). There were two peaks of activity, the first half of June (37.24 inds/lamp) and the second half of August (68.41 inds/lamp), for C. homotomus. There were two peaks of activity, the second half of May (16.08 inds/lamp) and the first half of August (23.22 inds/lamp), for C. morisitai. The total index of blood-sucking midges captured by the light traps from April to October was 21.46 inds/lamp, and the index of blood-sucking midges captured by the light traps varied across different months. Conclusion This investigation provides a reference for studies of the species composition and seasonal variation of blood-sucking midges and midge-borne diseases in the Bohai New Area of Cangzhou, Hebei province, China.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 586-588 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 621KB] ( 20 )
 
Review
589 WANG Yang, SONG Xiao, CHENG Peng, GONG Mao-qing
Research advances in mosquito resistance to insecticides mediated by cytochrome P450
Cytochrome P450 is an important family of enzymes ubiquitously expressed in organisms. It can metabolize a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances, and plays an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of insecticides in insects. The metabolism and detoxification of insecticides mediated by P450 are characterized by universality and cross resistance, and the mechanisms involve an increase in enzyme expression and a change in enzyme activity. This article reviews some new research advances in the P450-mediated insecticide resistance of mosquitoes.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 589-592 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 517KB] ( 9 )
593 GUI You-jun, CUI Yan, BAOKAIXI Guliayi, WANG Qi-guo, LI Bo, LUO Tao, LI Wei
The risk of plague and its prevention and control strategies in Xinjiang during the development of the Silk Road Economic Belt
Co-constructing Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road are major initiatives for China to deepen reform and opening-up, especially opening up to the west. As a core area of Silk Road Economic Belt, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang), once the "pocket bottom" of the inland, has become an important logistics distribution center and transportation hub of the Belt and Road. Such important strategic positioning signifies a major historical opportunity for the substantial development of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). However, opportunities and challenges coexist. Many countries along the Silk Road are natural foci of plague; in addition, Xinjiang has a natural plague foci of 330 000 square kilometers. With the increasingly frequent exchanges between countries along the Road such as international transportation and tourism, the probability of long-distance transportation of plague-infected animals and their products from plague foci to non-plague foci as well as densely populated areas also increases, which raises the risk of sudden plague outbreaks outside plague foci. In the new era, how to do well in the prevention and control of plague in Xinjiang, how to promote cooperation in plague surveillance, plague prevention and control, and health emergency after plague outbreaks among countries along the Road, and how to boost the development of Healthy Silk Road are particularly important. To this end, this article reviews the risk of plague and its prevention and control strategies in Xinjiang during the development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, with a view to providing a reference for future plague prevention and control.
2019 Vol. 30 (5): 593-596 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1215KB] ( 22 )
Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control






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