Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control
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CHINESE JOURNAL OF VECTOR BIOLOGY AND CONTROL
2019, Vol.30 Num.6
Online: 2019-12-20

Original Reports
Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series
Biology and Ecology
Investigation
Technique Methods
Review
 
Original Reports
597 CHEN Han-ming, CHEN Hui-ying, GAO Jing-peng, LI Kai-li, YANG Zhen-zhou, PENG Heng, MA Ya-jun
Ecological niches of sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the extension region of Loess Plateau, China: an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis
Objective To investigate the ecological niches of sandflies in the endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in the extension regions of the Loess Plateau, China, and to determine the infection status of Wolbachia in sandflies. Methods Sandflies were collected in Shan county, Henan province, China (in July 2015) and Yangquan and Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, China (in June and July, 2017). Meanwhile, the habitats were observed and investigated. The sandflies were sorted in the field according to their external morphology; the fresh samples were randomly selected for dissection. The species were identified by observing their pharyngeal armatures and spermathecae. Molecular identification was performed according to partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (mtDNA Cyt b) gene. The 16S rRNA fragments of Wolbachia were amplified by PCR to determine the infection status of Wolbachia in sandflies. Results The sites for sandfly collection were typical extension regions of the Loess Plateau with a large area of bare land. A total of 2 273 sandflies were collected in Shan county, Henan province; female sandflies accounted for 79.60% (1 635/2 054) in chicken houses and 93.15%(204/219) in cave dwellings and courtyards, both of which were higher than those of male sandflies. In Yangquan and Wuxiang county, Shanxi province, 3 599 and 2 850 sandflies were captured, respectively. The proportion of female sandflies was much higher than that of male sandflies in both areas. Among the collected sandflies, 99.60%(3 444/3 458) were female sandflies captured in chicken farms and 74.01%(2 549/3 444) of the female sandflies took blood meal. It could be inferred that chickens, sheep, pigs, dogs, ducks, geese, donkeys, and cattle (whether fed concentratedly or scatteredly) in the countryyards were blood source animals for sandflies and the loose soil surrounding those animals were breeding sites for sandflies. All the 50 sandflies identified by morphology were Phlebotomus chinensis. Molecular identification showed that all the 108 sandflies were Ph. chinensis except one that was identified as Sergentomyia squamirostris (found in Shan county, Henan province). Phlebotomus chinensis was the dominant species in the area, and the peak activity season for local sandflies ranged from June to July every year. Wolbachia detection was positive in 9 pooled samples from Shan county, 6 pooled and 56 individual samples from Yangquan city, 10 pooled and 79 individual samples from Wuxiang county. The infection rate for the individual sandfly was 51.85% (56/108) in Yangquan and 73.15% (79/108) in Wuxiang county. Conclusion The ecological niches of vector Ph. chinensis have been identified in the extension regions of the Loess Plateau, which is an important endemic area of leishmaniasis in China. Wolbachia has a high infection rate among the on-site Ph. chinensis population.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 597-602 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 2650KB] ( 42 )
603 JIANG Xiao-lin, CHEN De-ying, LYU Tao, PANG Bo, ZHANG Guo-ying, ZHANG Xiao-mei, WANG Xian-jun, DING Shu-jun
An investigation of risk factors for death in three patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Wendeng district, Weihai, Shandong province, China
Objective To investigate the basic characteristics of patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and risk factors for occurrence and death of SFTS in Wendeng district, Weihai, Shandong province, China, and to provide scientific evidence for precise control and prevention of this disease. Methods A field investigation was carried out to collect the clinical and epidemiological information of the cases, and the specimens from healthy people, animals, and ticks. The virus-specific nucleic acids and antibodies were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. The statistical differences in positive rate of antibodies between specimens of different features were determined. Results The three death cases presented with systemic symptoms including high fever, fatigue, and anorexia in the early stage, followed by consciousness disturbance and hemorrhagic manifestations in the late stage. The time interval from disease onset to death was shorter than 10 days. All the 3 cases were elderly women aged 65 years or older living in different areas of the same village, and they had no epidemiological associations. A total of 169 serum specimens from healthy people were collected. All the serum specimens were negative for IgM antibody, and 4.14% of them were positive for IgG antibody. There was a significant difference in the positive rate of IgG antibody between different age groups (χ2=6.987, P=0.030), and the positive rate of IgG antibody increased with age. Among 69 animal blood specimens, the overall positive rates of antibodies in blood specimens from sheep and dogs were 32.14% and 20.00%, respectively, while the antibodies were negative in blood specimens from raccoon dogs, chickens and cats. There was a significant difference in the positive rate of antibodies between different animals (χ2=13.263, P=0.010). The virus-specific nucleic acids were negative in all the animal blood specimens. Six ticks (one questing tick and five on-host ticks) were captured and identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, negative for virus-specific nucleic acids. Conclusion This investigation has an important enlightenment on understanding the epidemiological characteristics of SFTS. Further research should be conducted to investigate transmission routes, pathogenic features, and risk factors for onset and death of this disease. Health promotion and education should be strengthened among the key population to raise awareness of disease prevention in key areas during high-incidence seasons.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 603-606 [Abstract] ( 34 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 570KB] ( 27 )
607 LI Si-si, ZHANG Xiao-yu, ZHANG Yan-kai, LIU Jing-ze
An analysis of bacterial community composition and diversity in Ixodes persulcatus in Inner Mongolia, China
Objective To investigate the bacterial community composition and population diversity in Ixodes persulcatus. Methods Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to determine the highly variable V3 segment of 16S rDNA gene of I. persulcatus in Inner Mongolia. Meanwhile, analyses were performed on bacterial community composition, population diversity, dominant bacterial population, and distribution of common pathogens. Results A total of 22 727 sequences and 1 570 operational taxonomic units were obtained for analysis. The coverage of all samples was greater than or equal to 0.95, which indicated that the number of sequences for sequencing was sufficient for covering basically all the bacterial species. Among the samples, male ticks had the highest richness index and diversity index (2 431 and 4.11, respectively), followed by female ticks and eggs. The dominant bacteria in I. persulcatus were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, sequentially, among which Alphaproteobacteria showed the highest relative abundance. On the genus level, the composition of genera with higher relative abundance varied greatly between different types of samples. Bacteria found in the samples were pathogens (i.e., Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae, Spiroplasma, and Borrelia miyamotoi), environmental bacteria (i.e., Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, and Brevundimonas), and maternally inherited symbiont (i.e., Montezuma). Conclusion There are relatively significant differences in bacterial community composition and abundance between different I. persulcatus samples in Inner Mongolia.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 607-612 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 2436KB] ( 33 )
613 YAO Dan-dan, JIANG Hong-xue, LIU Fu-jia, FENG Zhi-yong
A study of the resistance of Rattus losea to the first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide and its correlation with the VKORC1 gene
Objective To investigate the resistance of Rattus losea to the first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide in Xinhui district, Jiangmen, Guangdong province, China, and to elucidate the relationship between vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene mutation and rodenticide resistance. Methods The lethal feeding period test was used to determine the resistance of R. losea. The genomic DNAs of the rodents were extracted to clone the VKORC1 gene and screen out mutation and polymorphism sites. Meanwhile, the correlation between VKORC1 gene mutation and resistance was analyzed. Results The resistance rate of R. losea to the first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide was 27.03%, indicating the formation of a resistant population. The total length of the VKORC1 gene was 2 166 bp. A total of 12 mutation sites were detected and one of them was an insertion-deletion site. Exon 1 and exon 3 each had one mutation site, while intron 1 and intron 2 had six and four mutation sites, respectively. The exon 1 mutation resulted in an amino acid mutation at site 58 (Arg58Gly) and the exon 3 mutation was a synonymous mutation (Cys96Cys). A correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between rodenticide resistance of R. losea and single nucleotide polymorphism site of the VKORC1 gene (P>0.05). Conclusion The site 58 amino acid mutation of the VKORC1 gene is not the main cause of rodenticide resistance in R. losea. The genetic mechanism of rodenticide resistance in R. losea may be related to other factors.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 613-617 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 595KB] ( 21 )
618 WANG Dan, CHEN Zhong-quan, LUO Can-mei, MI Jiao-ni, TIAN Zhen-zao, LIANG Wen-qin
An investigation of insecticide resistance of Musca domestica in Bijie and Fuquan of Guizhou province, China, 2018
Objective To investigate the current status of resistance of Musca domestica to four commonly used insecticides in Bijie and Fuquan of Guizhou province, China, and to provide a basis for scientific prevention and control of M. domestica and rational selection of insecticides. Methods In August 2018, the net trap method was used to capture adult M. domestica at breeding places in Bijie and Fuquan, and the flies were brought back to insectary for identification and were fed to obtain the F1 generation. The micro-drip method was used to determine the resistance of adult female M. domestica, aged 3-5 days after eclosion, to four commonly used insecticides. SPSS 24.0 software was used to perform a statistical analysis and calculate median lethal dose (LD50). Results The LD50 values of M. domestica in Bijie against deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, permethrin, and DDVP were 0.141, 0.488, 0.288, and 0.627 μg/♀, respectively, with resistance ratios of 20.14, 28.71, 57.60, and 209.00 folds, respectively. The LD50 values of M. domestica in Fuquan against the above four insecticides were 0.180, 0.450, 0.464, and 0.808 μg/♀, respectively, with resistance ratios of 25.71, 26.47, 92.80, and 269.33 folds, respectively. Conclusion M. domestica in Bijie and Fuquan has developed resistance to the four commonly used insecticides, with a consistent level of resistance. M. domestica in both cities has the highest level of resistance to DDVP and high levels of resistance to the other three pyrethroid insecticides. Chemical insecticides should be effectively selected according to the insecticide resistance results so as to improve the efficacy and efficiency of the prevention and control of flies.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 618-620 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 430KB] ( 19 )
621 WANG Xiao-guang, YANG Rui-jun, HUANG Shi-teng, CAO Guo-ping, LEI Yong-liang, YE Ling
Whole-genome characterization of imported Chikungunya virus in Quzhou, Zhejiang province, China, 2017
Objective To perform whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from the serum sample of a febrile patient who had traveled to Bangladesh in Quzhou, 2017. Methods Blood samples were collected aseptically from the patient. The serum was separated for detection of nucleic acids of CHIKV and Dengue virus by RT-PCR. The genome-wide target gene fragments of CHIKV were amplified by RT-PCR and then sequenced. The whole-genome sequence was analyzed by bioinformatic programs:Contig Express, SeqMan, Clustalx V2.0, BioEdit V7.0, GENEDO and MEGA X. Results The patient's serum was positive for CHIKV nucleic acids. The sequencing data were assembled to obtain the whole-genome sequence of CHIKV strain QZ0823, containing 11 787 bp nucleotides. No mutation was found in major structural sites of non-structural proteins. For structural proteins, E1 lacked the adaptive mutation A226V; E2 lacked the new substitution mutation K252Q that might affect the neurovirulence of CHIKV; there were no Aedes aegypti adaptive mutations E1:K211E or E2:V264A. The whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis showed that QZ0823 was tightly clustered with the epidemic strains in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship. Conclusion The nucleotide sequences of whole genome and structural genes C-E3-E2-6K-E1 of the imported virus in Quzhou show obvious features of CHIKV. QZ0823 and the epidemic strains in Bangladesh are derived from the Eastern, Central, and Southern African genetic lineage.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 621-625 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1612KB] ( 23 )
626 ZHANG Jie, WANG Zi-jiang, LI Xin, LIU Xue-sheng, LIU Yun, SUN Ying-wei, YAO Wen-qing
An analysis of the surveillance results of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Liaoning province, China, 2012-2016
Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans and rodents at surveillance sites in Liaoning province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for formulating prevention and control measures. Methods Data on the epidemic situation of HFRS from 2012 to 2016 were collected from 5 surveillance sites in Liaoning province, and investigations on host animals were performed in both spring and autumn. The trap-at-night method was used to determine rodent density. Hantavirus antigen and antibody tests were performed for rodent lung and blood film specimens. Results The incidence rate reported by each surveillance site was between 0.49/100 000 and 16.85/100 000. The five-year mean rodent density was 4.03% in residential areas and 4.09% in the field. The dominant rodent species was Rattus norvegicus in residential areas (72.91%) and Apodemus agrarius in the wild (74.55%). The virus-carrying rate and infection rate in rodents were 4.57% and 13.94%, respectively. Conclusion R. norvegicus and A. agrarius are the main host animals and infection sources of HFRS in Liaoning province. It is necessary to formulate targeted prevention and control strategies and measures specific to the incidence characteristics of HFRS at different surveillance sites due to the relatively significant differences in rodent density and virus-carrying rate between surveillance sites.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 626-629 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 760KB] ( 22 )
630 LIU Mei-de, ZHANG Yong, ZHANG Hong-jiang, TONG Ying, LIU Ting, LI Qiu-hong, ZHOU Xiao-jie, FU Xue-feng, TIAN Yan-lin, QIAN Kun, GE Jun-qi, ZENG Xiao-peng
A study of the correlation between lamp trapping mosquito density and biting rate in Beijing
Objective To investigate the biting rate dynamics of mosquitoes in Beijing Olympic Forest Park (BOFP), and to analyze the correlation between biting rate and the population density measured by the lamp trapping method. Methods A dynamic monitoring of the biting rate and population density of mosquitoes was conducted by human landing catch and CO2 trapping lamp from July to September, 2013. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between the mosquito density measured by the lamp trapping method and biting rate, and a linear regression analysis was used to build a linear model for prediction of the biting rate based on the mosquito density measured using the CO2 trapping lamp. Results Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species of mosquito community in Beijing, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The biting rate of mosquitoes continuously increased from July to September, and a trough of lamp trapping mosquito density was detected in August. There was a linear correlation between lamp trapping mosquito density and biting rate in July and September, while there was no correlation between them in August. Conclusion The mosquito density measured by the lamp trapping method is closely correlated with the biting rate of mosquitoes. Cx. pipiens pallens is the dominant species of mosquito community in Beijing, and the probability of people being bitten by mosquitoes is significantly correlated with the population density of Cx. pipiens pallens.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 630-633 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1349KB] ( 27 )
634 MA Li-hua, HUANG Gang, WANG Xi-ming
A quality assessment method based on the analytic hierarchy process for vector density surveillance in Hebei province, China
Objective To calculate the weights of quality assessment indicators of vector density surveillance in Hebei province, China by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and to rank those indicators in the order of their influence on quality of surveillance. Methods Based on the achievement data on density surveillance and quality control of four vectors in both cities and counties of Hebei province from 2014 to 2015, AHP was applied to construct a judgment matrix and calculate the weights of assessment indicators. Results The main influencing indicators of quality of rodent surveillance were coincidence rate of distribution of surveillance points, coincidence rate of selection of surveillance points, and coincidence rate of species of specimens, with the weights of 0.197 0, 0.197 0, and 0.175 6, respectively. The main influencing indicators of quality of mosquito surveillance were coincidence rate of surveillance time, coincidence rate of distribution of surveillance points, coincidence rate of selection of surveillance points, coincidence rate of quantity of specimens, and coincidence rate of species of specimens, with the weights of 0.204 5, 0.136 4, 0.136 4, 0.136 4, and 0.136 4, respectively. The main influencing indicators of quality of fly surveillance were coincidence rate of species of specimens, coincidence rate of distribution of surveillance points, and coincidence rate of selection of surveillance points, with the weights of 0.235 1, 0.156 7, and 0.156 7, respectively. The main influencing indicators of quality of cockroach surveillance were coincidence rate of quantity of specimens, coincidence rate of distribution of surveillance points, and coincidence rate of selection of surveillance points, with the weights of 0.235 1, 0.156 7, and 0.156 7, respectively. Conclusion AHP can be used to assess the quality of vector density surveillance. The weights of indicators can reflect the relative importance of different indicators in the quality of density surveillance of four vectors. It can provide a reference for the quality control of vector density surveillance.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 634-638 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1092KB] ( 22 )
639 LI Zhi-ping, WU Zhao, LIU Xu-hong, WU Ning, JIA Yu-xin
A vector surveillance report of Gansu province, China, 2018
Objective To investigate the species composition, density, and seasonal variation of vectors in Gansu province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for vector prevention and control in this area. Methods According to the National Vector Surveillance Implementation Plan, the rodents, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches were monitored at the vector surveillance sites in Gansu province in 2018. The trap-at-night/night-cage method, lamp trapping method, spoon method, cage trapping method and sticky trap method were used to survey rodents, adult mosquitoes, larval mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches, respectively. Excel 2010 software was used to analyze the surveillance data. Results The overall capture rate of rodents was 0.63%; Mus musculus was the dominant species, accounting for 72.31% of the total; the peak period was November. The overall density of adult mosquitoes was 11.94 mosquitoes/lamp·night; Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species, accounting for 77.84% of the total. The positive dip index of larval mosquitoes was 7.79%, with the highest ratio (92.25%) observed in the larvae of Culex; the peak density was in July for both adult and larval mosquitoes. The overall density of flies was 2.78 flies/cage; the peak density (5.69 flies/cage) was in July. The overall density of cockroaches was 0.47 cockroach/cage, with an infestation rate of 8.71%. All the cockroaches captured were Blattella germanica, with their peak density in May. Conclusion Mus musculus was still the dominant rodent species in Gansu province. The dominant mosquito species was mainly Cx. pipiens pallens, but the constituent ratio of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus has significantly increased compared with that of the previous year. The peak density of flies was observed in July. The density and infestation rate of cockroaches have decreased to some degree as compared with those of the previous year; all the cockroaches captured were still German cockroaches. Prevention and control measures against Japanese encephalitis should be strengthened.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 639-642 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1282KB] ( 36 )
643 XIONG Jin-feng, LIU Man, TAN Liang-fei, YAO Xuan
A vector surveillance report of Hubei province, China, 2018
Objective To investigate the population composition, density, and seasonal variation of vectors in Hubei province, China, in 2018, and to provide scientific evidence for vector control. Methods The night trap method was used to capture rodents in odd months during January to December; mosquitoes were captured using the light trap method, Breteau index method, and double net method from April to October; flies were caught using the cage trapping method from April to October; the sticky trap method was used to capture cockroaches in odd months during January to December. Results In 2018, the rodent capture rate in Hubei province was 0.36%, and Rattus tanezumi was the dominant species; the density of rats in rural villages and special industries was slightly higher than that in the urban residential areas. The result of mosquito light trap surveillance showed that the mean density of mosquitoes was 12.44 mosquitoes/lamp·night, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the dominant species; the density of mosquitoes in livestock sheds was significantly higher than that in other habitats. The density of flies was 2.55 flies/cage, and Musca domestica was the dominant species; farmers' markets had the highest fly density (3.95 flies/cage). The mean density of cockroaches was 0.53 cockroaches/trap, and the infestation rate was 7.64%; Blattella germanica was the dominant species; farmers' markets had the highest cockroach density (1.93 cockroaches/trap) and infestation rate (14.44%). Rodents and cockroaches were active throughout the year, and mosquitoes and flies maintained a relatively high density level from May to September. Conclusion The densities of main vectors in Hubei province were at a low level in 2018. The sensitivity of surveillance systems and the level of monitoring, forecasting, and early warning should be continuously improved in the future, so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of vectors in Hubei province.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 643-647 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1650KB] ( 47 )
648 GAO Wen, HUANG Gang, HAN Xiao-li, SONG Ji-wen
An investigation and analysis of the emergence of Aedes albopictus in small water containers in surveillance sites for dengue vector Aedes in Hebei province, China
Objective To investigate the emergence of Aedes albopictus in mosquito-positive small water containers in surveillance sites for dengue fever vector Aedes in Hebei province, China, and to provide scientific data for prevention and control of dengue vector Aedes. Methods Two villages were randomly sampled from the surveillance sites for dengue vector Aedes, one in Mancheng district in Baoding and the other in Yutian county in Tangshan. Four streets in different directions were selected to record mosquito breeding status and their larvae condition in all mosquito-positive small water containers inside and outside the rooms. The mosquito larvae were collected and taken back to the laboratory to be fed for observing and recording the emergence of Ae. albopictus, and analyses were performed on factors that may affect the emergence probability of Ae. albopictus. Results The positive rate of Ae. albopictus in mosquito-positive small water containers was 100% in peak seasons for Ae. albopictus activities in the surveillance sites for dengue vector Aedes in Hebei province, and the constituent ratio was 71.67% for containers containing Ae. albopictus larvae only. There were significant differences in the constituent ratio of mosquito-positive small water containers containing Ae. albopictus only between containers of different characteristics (P<0.05). The probability of larvae emergence into Ae. albopictus was 66.57% for larvae in mosquito-positive containers, but there were no significant differences in the probability of larvae emergence into adult Ae. albopictus between mosquito-positive water containers of different characteristics (P>0.05). Conclusion Aedes albopictus larvae breeding is observed in mosquito-positive water containers of different characteristics in the residential areas in Hebei province, which demonstrates equivalent infestation. Water containers of different characteristics in the pre-warning areas of dengue risk should be completely disposed. The Breteau index and the data on probability of larvae emergence into Ae. albopictus in mosquito-positive water containers can be referred to during prevention and control of dengue vector Aedes to comprehensively evaluate the risk of dengue vector-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 648-652 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1025KB] ( 35 )
653 ZHOU Xiao-jie, ZHANG Yong, YAN Ting, LI Jing, LIU Mei-de, FU Xue-feng, LI Qiu-hong, LIU Ting, TONG Ying, ZENG Xiao-peng
A preliminary study on the effect of residual spraying on hedgerow in preventing and controlling mosquitoes
Objective To investigate the effect of residual spraying of lambda-cyhalothrin microcapsule suspension on hedgerow in preventing and controlling mosquitoes. Methods This test was initiated on August 13, 2015, with a duration of one month. Two areas (control area and test area) with similar natural conditions and mosquito density were studied. Residual spraying was implemented using low-volume spray on the leaves (especially the backside) of the hedgerow in the test area. The change in the density of adult mosquitoes after spraying was continuously monitored by the CO2 lamp trapping method. The prevention and control effect was evaluated by the decrease rate (%) of relative density. Results After residual spraying of the hedgerow in the test area, the relative density of mosquitoes showed a decrease rate of more than 80% within 2 weeks and a decrease rate of more than 70% at 3 and 4 weeks after treatment as compared with those in the control area (no insecticide treatment). The study above was repeated once in the same place in mid-August, 2017, with the obtained results basically consistent with those in 2015. Conclusion Taking account of environmental safety and sustainable control of mosquitoes, it can achieve a good control effect on relatively high-density adult mosquitoes by standardized residual spraying on hedgerow using proper insecticides and dosage forms under feasible application environments and conditions accompanied by environmental control measures.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 653-656 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 828KB] ( 35 )
657 LIU Yao, LENG Pei-en, ZHU Jiang, LIU Hong-xia, XU Jin-qiu, FAN Ming-qiu, ZHOU Yi-bin
A study of rodent infestation and its spatial distribution in machinery rooms in a large building complex in Shanghai, China
Objective To investigate rodent infestation in machinery rooms in a large building complex, to preliminarily explore the spatial distribution of rodents in large building complexes, and to provide a basis for rodent control. Methods In middle and late April, 2018, more than 90 professional technicians performed a general investigation on rodent trace in high-voltage (HV) and low-voltage (LV) machinery rooms and HVAC machinery rooms in a large building complex using the rodent trace method. Excel 2017, SPSS 20.0 and ArcGIS 10.1 softwares were used for data entry, statistical analysis (paired chi-square test), and spatial analysis, respectively. Results A total of 1 304 machinery rooms were investigated, including 532 HV machinery rooms, 377 LV machinery rooms, 386 HVAC machinery rooms, and 9 machinery rooms of other types. The standard positive rate of rodent trace per room were 1.33%, 2.15%, 0.42%, and 0 for the HV machinery rooms, LV machinery rooms, HVAC machinery rooms, and machinery rooms of other types in the venue, respectively, with significant differences observed between the rooms (χ2=14.182, P<0.05); the overall positive rate of rodent trace was 0.85%. The positive rates of rodent trace were 1.69%, 1.26%, and 1.09%, respectively, for the 3rd, 6th, and 1st floors of the building, significantly higher than those on the other floors (χ2=13.051, P<0.05). The positive rate of rodent trace was 1.02% for areas near the main road and 1.09% for areas far from the main road, with no significant difference between them (χ2=0.028, P>0.05). The positive rates of rodent trace for the three areas centered around the central region from near to far were 0.53%, 0.88%, and 1.50%, respectively, showing an increasing trend but no significant differences between them (χ2=3.528, P>0.05). Conclusion Rodent infestation still exists in large building complexes. Rodent activity is closely related to food sources and accessible space. Long-term and continuous rodent density surveillance should be performed and effective control measures should be adopted.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 657-660 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 559KB] ( 21 )
661 LIU Guo-ping, XU Hong-bin, CHENG Rui, ZHANG Shao-zai, CHEN Ke-fei, LIU Shan-shan, YAN Yu-han, LIANG Guo-dong
An investigation of hematophagous midges in 10 counties or cities of Jiangxi province, China
Objective To investigate the species distribution and ecological habit of hematophagous midges in 10 counties or cities in the northeastern and midwestern Jiangxi province, China. Methods Hematophagous midges were captured in 10 counties or cities of Jiangxi (Lichuan, Zixi, Yingtan, Qianshan, Yushan, and Fuliang in the northeast as well as Yongfeng, Xiajiang, Anfu, and Jinggangshan in the midwest) using the light-trap method. The intact individuals of hematophagous midges were selected, and the specimens were slide-mounted in Canada balsam-phenol and subjected to taxonomic identification. Results A total 45 999 hematophagous midges belonging to 27 species in 2 genera were captured in the 10 counties or cities of Jiangxi from June to July, 2018, including 25 species in Culicoides and 2 species in Lasiohelea. Of the 27 species, 11 were recorded for the first time in Jiangxi:C. clavipalpis, C. flaviscutatus, C. innoxius, C. jacobsoni, C. luteolus, C. marginus, C. newsteadi, C. parahumeralis, C. tainanus, C. tenuipalpis, and Lasiohelea diaoluoensis. There were 26 species in the northeastern region and 13 species in the midwestern region. The dominant species were C. arakawai (45.31%) and C. oxystoma (16.71%). The dominant species in the northeastern region were C. arakawai (28.54%) and C. oxystoma (22.05%), and the dominant species in the midwestern region was C. arakawai (91.91%). The species distribution and dominant species varied in different places. The overall blood-sucking rate of 7 dominant species was 16.56%, of which, C. oxystoma had the highest blood-sucking rate (43.90%) and C. arakawai had the lowest blood-sucking rate (6.06%). The total light-trap index of hematophagous midges was 943.54/lamp in six sites, with the highest index in the cattle pen (1 297.78/lamp) and the lowest index in sheepfold (684.25/lamp). The blood-sucking rate and light-trap index varied with different midges species and places. Conclusion The faunal distribution and ecological habit of hematophagous midges in Jiangxi province have been mastered, which provides a reference for investigation as well as prevention and control of midge-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 661-664 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 542KB] ( 21 )
 
Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series
665 DE Ji, DUOJI Zhuo-ma, ZHUOMA Yang-jin, YONC Jian, ZHAXI Zhuo-ma, YANG Xiao-dong, YANG Gui-rong, WANG Jian, ZHOU Hong-ning, GONG Zheng-da
Taxonomy and fauna of Culicidae in Tibet VIII. First discovery of genus Tripteriodes and two species in Tibet
Objective To investigate and understand the fauna of mosquitoes in Tibet Autonomous Region. Methods From August to September, 2017, investigation and sampling, specimen preparation, and taxonomic identification were performed for mosquito larvae collected from various types of breeding sites in southeastern Tibet. Results A batch of specimens of genus Tripteriodes was collected in Motuo county, and two species of mosquitoes, Tripteriodes (Rac.) aranoides (Theobald, 1901) and Tr. (Tri.) similis (Leicester, 1908), were identified. This genus and the two species were found in Tibet for the first time. This article briefly reports the important morphological characteristics, distribution area, breeding environment, and the structure of the male terminalia of this genus and its two species of mosquitoes. Conclusion So far, there are two subgenera and two species of the genus Tripteriodes in Tibet.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 665-667 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 930KB] ( 17 )
 
Biology and Ecology
668 LI Tian-qi, TONG Zhen-dong, LAN Yu-qing, LI Ye, LIU Jie-nan, DAI Ya-xin, WANG Jin-na, HOU Juan, GONG Zhen-yu
Two newly recorded species of Ixodidae in Zhejiang province, China
The ticks collected from Zhoushan and Lishui of Zhejiang province, China and tick specimens stored at the Specimen Repository of Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed, and two newly recorded species were found after specimen preparation and morphological classification and identification, i.e., Dermacentor taiwanensis and Haemaphysalis kolonini. This study provides an important basis for the surveillance and prevention/control of ticks in Zhejiang province.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 668-671 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 3150KB] ( 22 )
 
Investigation
672 Vilayvone Maniphousay, WANG Jian, DENG Yan, ZHOU Hong-ning
An investigation of species composition of adult mosquitoes in residential areas of Nong county of Savannakhet province in southern Lao PDR
Objective To investigate the species composition of adult mosquitoes in residential areas of Nong county of Savannakhet province in southern Lao PDR, and to provide a scientific basis for developing prevention and control strategies and measures for local important mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Adult mosquitoes were captured using the light-trap method (overnight) and electric mosquito trap method in residential areas, and all mosquitoes were identified by morphological classification. Results A total of 9 415 mosquitoes belonging to 44 species in 11 genera of 3 subfamilies were captured in residential areas of Nong county of Savannakhet province from August to September, 2018. Armigeres subalbatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus were dominant species, accounting for 44.43% (4 183/9 415) and 20.73% (1 952/9 415) of total collected adult mosquitoes, respectively; Anopheles minimus, Aedes albopictus, and Ae. aegypti had lower proportions, accounting for 1.96% (184/9 415), 1.09% (103/9 415), and 0.54% (51/9 415) of total collected adult mosquitoes, respectively. Conclusion Mosquito species are abundant in Nong county of Savannakhet province in southern Lao PDR. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis vector), An. minimus (malaria vector), and Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti (dengue vectors) are distributed in this region, so it is suggested that the local healthy department should strengthen the monitoring of important mosquito-borne disease vectors mentioned above.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 672-674 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 344KB] ( 15 )
675 PENG Wei-jun, CHEN Hong-biao, ZHOU Xiao-feng, GAN Zhong-yin, ZHOU Shi-quan, LUO Jing-wei, CAO He
Effect of temperature trend on the reproduction of Aedes albopictus under natural conditions in Shenzhen, China
Objective To investigate the effect of temperature trend on the reproduction of Aedes albopictus under natural conditions, and to provide data support for predicting population dynamics and mosquito control in Shenzhen, China. Methods Mosquito ovitraps were placed in at least one place each of residential areas, hospitals, and parks in Shenzhen monthly from 2016 to 2018, and the influence of temperature trend on the mosquito ovitrap index (MOI) and spawning rate (SR) of Ae. albopictus under natural conditions was analyzed with recovered ovitraps. A one-sample t-test was used for comparison of samples in one group. Results The MOI in Shenzhen exceeded the dengue fever control threshold (MOI >5) at 25℃ to 30℃, and it peaked (9.41±7.47) at 25℃ to 26℃. The density of Ae. albopictus increased rapidly from January to May, resulting in the highest value between May and June, and then gradually decreased. The SR was maintained at a relatively high level between February and July along with the rising temperature, and the average SR increased from (73.61±41.32)% to (100.00±0.00)%; then the SR decreased gradually along with the declining temperature from August to February next year, and the average SR decreased from (62.55±21.64)% to (18.32±34.63)%. Conclusion When the density of Ae. albopictus peaks at 25℃ to 26℃ from May to June, the SR of Ae. albopictus is directly related to the changing trend of temperature in Shenzhen, China. At the same temperature, the SR of Ae. albopictus in the rising trend of temperature is higher than that in the declining trend.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 675-677 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 657KB] ( 25 )
678 WEI Ling-ya, KONG Qing-xin, WANG Hui-min, WANG Ying-hong, SHEN Lin-hai, CAO Yang
Comparison of insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus before and after emergency control of dengue fever in Hangzhou, China, 2017
Objective To investigate the changes in resistance of adult Aedes albopictus to common insecticides before and after emergency control of dengue fever in Hangzhou in 2017, and to explore the impacts of emergency chemical insecticide treatment on the insecticide resistance of mosquitoes. Methods Aedes albopictus larvae from every epidemic spot in Hangzhou were collected at the end of August, 2017, the early stage of dengue fever outbreak. In November, when the emergency control of dengue fever was in the late stage, Ae. albopictus larvae were collected from Zhaohui Nine Community in Xiacheng district. Both batches of Ae. albopictus were reared in the lab, and their insecticide resistance was determined by the adult contact tube method, which is recommended by WHO. Results In the early stage of dengue fever outbreak in Hangzhou, adult Ae. albopictus was sensitive to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, malathion, alpha-cypermethrin, and permethrin, with a 24-hour mortality rate of 100%. There was suspicious resistance to fenitrothion and lambda-cyhalothrin, and the mortality rates were 88.46% and 96.00%, respectively. After a large-scale insecticidal control, Ae. albopictus developed resistance to beta-cypermethrin, fenitrothion, and malathion at the end of emergency control, and the mortality rates were 73.81%, 72.29%, and 17.07%, respectively. In addition, they developed suspicious resistance to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, with mortality rates of 86.08%, 90.48%, 91.30%, and 80.52%, respectively. They remained sensitive to only propoxur, with a mortality rate of 98.77%. Conclusion Large-scale use of insecticides within a short period will increase the resistance of Ae. albopictus to insecticides. Therefore, in emergency control of mosquitoes, pesticides should be used scientifically and rationally based on the results of drug resistance monitoring, and an appropriate rotation strategy should be applied to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance. Additionally, sustainable management of Ae. albopictus vector should be advocated.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 678-681 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1019KB] ( 26 )
682 LI Ye, LAN Yu-qing, LIU Fu-ming, PAN Xiao-meng
Species and geographical distribution of ecto-parasitic ticks of rodents in China
Objective To review the species and geographical distribution of ecto-parasitic ticks of rodents in China, and to lay a foundation for research on tick-borne diseases. Methods Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, CNKI, and VIP Chinese Journal Service Platform were searched using "rodent, tick","rat, tick" and "otter, tick" (in Chinese) as subject headings, and the PubMed Search System was searched using "China, tick","Taiwan, tick","Hongkong, tick" and "Macao, tick" as subject headings. Results A total of 67 species of ecto-parasitic ticks of rodents, which belonged to 10 genera and 2 families, were reported in China. The data showed that Niviventer confucianus had the most species (18 species) of ecto-parasitic ticks, and Ixodes granulatus had the most species (19 species) of rodent hosts. The ecto-parasitic ticks of rodents were reported in all provinces (autonomous regions and centrally administered municipalities) of China, except for Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Macao. Thirty-eight species of parasitic ticks were reported in North China, particularly in Xinjiang (26 species). Forty-three species of parasitic ticks were reported in South China, particularly in Fujian (19 species). Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most widely distributed parasitic ticks in China, reported in 20 provinces. Conclusion In China, there are various widely distributed ecto-parasitic ticks of various rodent hosts, which act as a reservoir for pathogens of natural focus diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 682-688 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1019KB] ( 28 )
689 CHEN Xue-liang, MA Zhen-hong, GU Deng-an
An investigation of on-host ticks collected from domestic and small wild animals in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, China
Objective To investigate the prevalence of on-host ticks collected from domestic and small wild animals in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, China, and to provide a basis for prevention and control of tick-borne diseases. Methods On-host ticks were collected from animals in seven cities/districts in Suzhou from April to November, 2018, using the host body examination method. The main body surface areas of domestic animals were checked, and the on-host ticks found were collected with forceps; rat trap cages were placed in the field to capture small wild animals, and the animals captured were then checked throughout the body surface for on-host ticks. Results A total of 2 686 on-host ticks were collected from the animals in Suzhou. Species identification indicated that the ticks were Haemaphysalis campanulata (49.55%), Ha. flava (37.49%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.36%), and Ha. longicornis (1.60%). The tick infestation rates for domestic and wild animals were 23.47% and 52.38%, respectively. The tick infestation rates for sheep, dogs, and cats as domestic animals were 34.57%, 22.50%, and 5.00%, respectively; the tick infestation rates for yellow weasels and hedgehogs as wild animals were 100% and 90.00%, respectively. Conclusion There are four on-host tick species commonly present on the domestic and small wild animals in Suzhou, and the tick infestation rate for animals is high; therefore, it is necessary to prevent the risk of tick-borne diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 689-691 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 481KB] ( 20 )
692 CHEN Yang, DENG Yan-qin, LIN Dai-hua, XIAO Fang-zhen, LIN Wen, WANG Jia-xiong, HAN Teng-wei, LIU Jing, LIU Wei-jun
An investigation of firstly identified natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in some areas of Fujian province, China
Objective To investigate the type and range of natural focus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Fujian province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of this disease. Methods An investigation of host animals of HFRS was carried out in 15 surveillance sites between 2009 and 2017. Rodents were captured using cages at night, and the rodent density and constituent ratios were calculated. Immunofluorescent assay was used to detect and identify hantavirus (HV) antigen in rodent lungs. Results The mean rodent density was 7.05% in the 15 surveillance sites, and Rattus norvegicus, which carried Seoul HV, was the dominant species. The mean virus-carrying rate of rodents was 6.27%, and R. norvegicus accounted for 83.78%. The mean virus-carrying index of rodents was 0.07, and Longhai had the highest virus-carrying index of rodents 0.12. HV antigen was detected for the first time from R. norvegicus in the cities or counties of Anxi, Shaxian, Longhai, Zhangpu, Dehua, Wuping, Yunxiao, and Qingliu, and from R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi in the counties of Hua'an, Jiangle, and Mingxi. Conclusion It is confirmed for the first time that there are natural foci of HFRS in the 11 surveillance sites. Rattus norvegicus carrying Seoul HV is the main host animal and source of infection with HFRS. The epidemic area of domestic rodent-type HFRS is spreading to the southern and western areas in Fujian province, and widely distributed.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 692-695 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 589KB] ( 18 )
696 REN Xiao-bin, SUN Zhou, WANG Jing, YANG Xu-hui, LIU Mu-wen, KAO Qing-jun, ZHU Lei
Epidemiological and clinical features of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans in Hangzhou, China: an analysis of 96 cases
Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans in Hangzhou, China, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. Methods Related clinical data were collected from the patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in Hangzhou from 2013 to 2018. EpiData 3.1 database was used for data entry, and SPSS 16.0 softuare was used for statistical analysis. The chi-square test was used for comparison of mortality rate between groups. Results A total of 96 confirmed cases of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection were reported in Hangzhou from 2013 to 2018, among whom 33 patients died, resulting in a mortality rate of 34.38%. There were 5 waves of H7N9 epidemics in Hangzhou, and there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the five waves (χ2=6.131, P=0.190). There were 47 patients in the urban area with 14 deaths (29.79%) and 49 patients in the rural area with 19 deaths (38.78%), and there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (χ2=0.859, P=0.354). There were 64 male patients with 21 deaths (32.81%) and 32 female patients with 12 deaths (37.50%), and there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (χ2=0.208, P=0.649). There were 49 patients in the age <60 years group with 10 deaths (20.41%) and 47 in the age ≥ 60 years group with 23 deaths (48.94%), and there was a significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (χ2=8.655, P=0.003). There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the groups with different occupations (χ2=5.728, P=0.126). A total of 52 patients had underlying diseases, among whom 25 died, with a mortality rate of 48.08%; 43 patients had no underlying diseases, among whom 7 died, with a mortality rate of 16.28%; there was a significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (χ2=10.654, P=0.001). Conclusion Patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection who have an older age and underlying diseases tend to have a high mortality rate and thus they are the key population for the prevention and treatment of avian influenza.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 696-698 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 332KB] ( 15 )
699 ZHA Xi, LIU Shou
An analysis of plague surveillance data along the Lhasa-Nyingchi section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway from 2012 to 2017
Objective To investigate and analyze the plague surveillance data along the Lhasa-Nyingchi (LN) section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway in 2012-2017, and to provide plague control measures and related basis for the safety of construction and operation of the LN section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. Methods According to the requirements of National Plague Surveillance Program and Plague Surveillance Program of Tibet Autonomous Region, investigation of plague host animals and serological and bacteriological tests were carried out along the construction site of the LN Railway. Results No human plague was found along the construction site of the LN Railway from 2012 to 2017, but the plague among animals showed a continuous epidemic. Yersinia pestis was detected every year from 2012 to 2017, with a total of 38 strains found. A total of 105 976 hm2 of plague foci were investigated along the LN section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway construction site, and 3 075 marmots were found with a mean density of 0.029 inds/hm2; a total of 4 465 dry fleas from marmot burrows were investigated, and 35 were captured with a flea index of 0.008; a total of 605 dead marmot specimens were tested, and 38 (6.281%) of them were positive; in order to investigate small mammals, 28 807 clips were laid, and 136 small mammals (0.472%) were captured; a total of 107 small rodents were combed, and 14 fleas were obtained with a flea index of 0.131; a total of 6 848 serum samples were tested, including 4 014 dog serum samples, of which 5 (0.125%) were positive, as well as 2 834 Tibetan ovium serum samples, all of which were negative. Conclusion Although there was no human plague epidemic along the LN section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, the epidemic among animals was active. All units along the railway should do a good job in monitoring plague epidemic among animals.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 699-702 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 449KB] ( 17 )
703 WEI Huai-bo, YANG Xi-feng, ZHAO Ya-fei, LIU Jia-qi, WU Jing, TIAN Li, WU Xiu-lan, QIAO Shun
Species and fauna distribution of rodents in the frontier ports of Inner Mongolia, China
Objective To investigate the species and geographical distribution of rodents in the frontier ports of Inner Mongolia, China. Methods The monitoring data of rodents in 12 frontier ports of Inner Mongolia during 2006-2016 were collected and collated. Excel 2007 software was used for statistical analysis of the data on the distribution of rodents in different frontier ports using descriptive epidemiological method. Results During the period of 2006-2016, a total of 5 698 rodents belonging to 32 species, 25 genera, 6 families, and 2 orders were captured in the 12 main ports. The dominant species in the ports were Spermophilus dauricus, Meriones unguiculatus, and Allactaga sibirica. Conclusion The species and geographical distribution of rodents in the frontier ports of Inner Mongolia are understood basically to provide a scientific basis for the control of exotic vectors.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 703-706 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 612KB] ( 16 )
707 PAN Liang-liang, XIONG Hua-wei, YE Jian, ZHU Yi-chao, CHEN Wu-shen
A comparative analysis of the rates of entry and intake of commensal rodents for different poison bait boxes and poison baits
Objective To compare the rates of entry and intake of commensal rodents for poison bait boxes made of concrete and ceramic in Shenzhen, China, and the influence of different poison baits on the rates of entry and intake of commensal rodents, and to provide a scientific basis for the purchase of poison bait boxes and poison baits for deratization in Shenzhen. Methods In July 2018, the villages of Shuiku Xincun in Luohu district and Shawei in Futian district were selected as experimental points. Forty-nine groups of poison bait boxes were placed at each experimental point. Each group consisted of one concrete box and one ceramic box. The two boxes in each group were laid 0.5 m apart according to the specifications, while the space between each two groups was 5 m. For each box, poison bait was added and replaced every day, maintaining 30 g of bromadiolone poison grains or 2 pieces of bromadiolone wax bait (15 g each). We observed and recorded regularly every day, for 9 days in Shuiku Xincun and 10 days in Shawei. Statistical analysis of the recorded data was performed using chi-square test. Results The mean rates of entry for concrete and ceramic poison bait boxes were 35.88% and 24.70%, respectively, showing a significant difference (χ2=27.510, P<0.001), while the mean rates of intake for concrete and ceramic poison bait boxes were 17.08% and 6.87%, respectively, also showing a significant difference (χ2=45.977, P<0.001). The mean rates of entry for boxes containing bromadiolone poison grains and bromadiolone wax bait were 7.55% and 11.84%, respectively, giving a significant difference (χ2=5.140, P=0.023), while the mean rates of intake for boxes containing the above two baits were 5.51% and 9.59%, respectively, also giving significant difference (χ2=5.847, P=0.016). The mean rates of entry and intake of commensal rodents for poison bait boxes in different placement positions were 53.33% vs 35.14% (χ2=12.547, P<0.001), and 26.67% vs 13.78% (χ2=10.689, P=0.001), respectively. In this experiment, the rates of entry and intake for the concrete poison bait box were better than those for the ceramic poison bait box, while the rates of entry and intake for boxes containing bromadiolone wax bait were better than those for boxes containing bromadiolone poison grains. In addition, the poison bait boxes near the rodent hole had higher rates of entry and intake than those not close to the hole. Conclusion In this experiment, when the outdoor poison bait was used in the residential area of the experimental area, the acceptability of the concrete poison bait box to commensal rodents and the rate of intake of the poison bait were significantly better than those for the ceramic poison bait box. The commensal rodents preferred the poison bait boxes containing bromadiolone wax bait during feeding process. Concrete poison bait boxes and bromadiolone wax bait should be selected as a priority in the rodent control activities in Shenzhen.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 707-710 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 498KB] ( 16 )
711 TU Tao-tian, FENG Shao-quan, HE Ya-ming, YANG Xue-fan, XIAO Han-sen, JI Heng-qing
An analysis of rodent surveillance results at national-level surveillance sites in Chongqing, China, 2018
Objective To investigate the community structure, density, and seasonal variation of rodents at national-level surveillance sites in Chongqing, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of rodent-borne diseases. Methods From January to November, 2018, the trap-at-night method and the route index method were used at four national-level surveillance sites in Chongqing. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of constituent ratio. Results In 2018, the density of rodents was 0.98% in urban surveillance sites and 0.73% in rural surveillance sites, with a mean density of 1.15% indoors and outdoors, and the highest density was observed in special industries (1.74%). The mean route index of rodents was 1.81/km in the external environment of various places, and the highest index was observed in waste transfer stations and public toilets (2.86/km). The dominant species was Mus musculus in both urban and rural areas, and there was a significant difference in the composition of rodent species between different habitats (χ2=32.814, P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides preliminary results of the rodents in Chongqing, and reasonable prevention and control measures should be adopted based on surveillance results in districts and counties.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 711-712 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 401KB] ( 27 )
713 LIAO Ru-yan, HE Feng-xia, HU Jia, CAI Hui-ling, LI Jia-qi, CHEN Yin-yu
Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of an entry international navigation container ship seriously infested with vectors
Objective To prevent the transmission of diseases by the breeding vectors and their carried pathogens on an entry international navigation container ship. Methods In October 2016, an entry international container ship seriously infested with vectors in the phase II dock of Nansha port in Guangdong, China was disinsectized based on the breeding status of vectors and the structure of ship. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation was applied at a concentration of 8 g/m3 for 24 h in the cargo compartment and living areas. Cypermethrin insecticide spray (40 mg/m2, 30 min) was applied twice (before unloading and before fumigation) in the areas where it was unsuitable for fumigation, such as main engine room, deck, storeroom, anchor chain room, and lifeboat. Results The mortality rates of test insects and test rodents, which were used to evaluate the effect of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation, were 100% after 24 h of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation. No living vectors were observed in the spray areas by vector monitoring before departure. Conclusion The effect of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation on the entry international navigation container ship is satisfying, providing a valuable experience for the fumigation of large international navigation ships.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 713-715 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 430KB] ( 22 )
 
Technique Methods
716 ZHANG Jiao, CHU Meng-ying, WANG Zhong-yin, LIU Guang-chun
An improved slide preparation method for scuttle fly
Objective To improve the formula of slide mounting medium, and to solve the problem that the slide mounting medium dries too fast. Methods In order to reduce the drying rate of the slide mounting medium, 5 ml glycerol was added to the medium to maintain the humidity; glucose was reduced from 5 ml (old formula) to 3 ml to reduce the viscosity. Results The new medium formula was as follows:acacia 12 g, chloral hydrate crystal 20 g, glacial acetic acid 5 ml, glycerol 5 ml, 50%w/w glucose syrup 3 ml, and distilled water 30 ml. Conclusion The drying rate of this slide mounting medium is in the moderate range, which is suitable for the preparation of small insect specimens in northern China.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 716-718 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1742KB] ( 21 )
 
Review
719 ZHANG Xiao-lei, YUAN Zhi-ming, HU Xiao-min
Current status of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and management of resistance
Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is an important vector for mosquito-borne diseases, and can transmit many pathogens including Japanese encephalitis virus, filarial, West Nile virus, and Zika virus. In the past few decades, insecticides have become important tools for controlling mosquitoes and reducing mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes have developed varying degrees of insecticide resistance due to massive application of insecticides. This paper reviews the development, fitness, and inheritance patterns of insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, and discusses the resistance management approaches.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 719-724 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 707KB] ( 30 )
725 DU Guo-yi, YAN Dong, WANG Zhi-yu, GAO Shao-kun
Advances in research on anticoagulant rodenticide resistance
In recent years, a lot of research on anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, conducted by scholars at home and abroad, show that continuous use of anticoagulant rodenticides for 6 to 10 years will lead to rodenticide resistance in rodents. Rodenticide resistance can be effectively controlled by active resistance monitoring, scientific and rational use of drugs, cautious replacement of anticoagulant rodenticides, and integrated management and scientific rodent control. This paper summarizes the commonly used research methods and detection standards for anticoagulant rodenticide resistance at present, analyzes the cause of resistance, and discusses the current problems and shortcomings in the research on anticoagulant rodenticide resistance. Then management strategies and measures for anticoagulant rodenticide resistance are proposed to provide a reference for scientific rodent control.
2019 Vol. 30 (6): 725-728 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 614KB] ( 33 )
Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control






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