Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control
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CHINESE JOURNAL OF VECTOR BIOLOGY AND CONTROL
2019, Vol.30 Num.3
Online: 2019-06-20

Scrub Typhus Special Report
Original Reports

Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series
Biology and Ecology
Policy and Standard
Investigation
Reader, Author, and Editor
Review
 
Scrub Typhus Special Report
233 LI Gui-chang, WANG Yu-jiao, YUE Yu-juan, XU Lei, MU Qun-zheng, ZHAO Ning, LU Liang, LIU Qi-yong, LI Xing-zhou
Division of epidemic areas for summer- and autumn-type scrub typhus in China
Objective To investigate the division of the distribution areas for summer- and autumn-type scrub typhus in China by analyzing the seasonal distribution characteristics of reported scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2018, and to provide a scientific basis for research, prevention and control of scrub typhus vectors. Methods The data of scrub typhus cases reported in China were collected and analyzed, to identify the seasonal and geographical distributions of these cases. Results From 2006 to 2018, the incidence rate of scrub typhus in China increased year by year, with local cases in 31 provincial regions. As for seasonal distribution, the onset of this disease was observed throughout the year, and 88.87% of all cases were observed in June to November. The autumn-type epidemic areas were north to the line from Taihu Lake in Jiangsu to Central Anhui, Southern Henan, and Xi'an in Shaanxi province, and the summer-type epidemic areas were Eastern Tibet, Yunnan, Southern Sichuan, Western Hunan, Southern Jiangxi, and Southern Zhejiang. There was a transitional zone between these two types of epidemic areas. Conclusion The incidence rate of scrub typhus in China has been on the rise since 2006. This disease occurs in different seasons in northern and southern China, with summer- and autumn-type epidemic areas and a transitional zone between them. Therefore, targeted investigation should be performed in different areas for precise intervention.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 233-236 [Abstract] ( 20 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1121KB] ( 67 )
237 ZHANG Yu-fu, LIU Da-peng, CHU Hong-liang
An analysis of epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal clustering of scrub typhus in Jiangsu province, China, during 2008-2017
Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal clustering of scrub typhus in Jiangsu province, China, and to provide a reference for the development of prevention and control strategies and measures of scrub typhus. Methods Descriptive epidemiological method, spatial autocorrelation, and spatiotemporal clustering were used to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of scrub typhus and identify high-risk areas in Jiangsu province during 2008-2017. ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to visualize the results. Results A total of 7 950 cases were reported in Jiangsu province during 2008-2017, and the mean annual incidence was 1.01/100 000. Farmers were the high-risk population. Women had a higher incidence rate of scrub typhus than men. The cases were mainly concentrated in the population aged 45-80 years. The global Moran's I index was 0.130 (P=0.023), indicating the presence of a high value or low value clustering area. The local autocorrelation analysis results showed that "High-High" clustering areas were mainly located in Dafeng district, Dongtai city, and Binhai county, and "High-Low" clustering area was mainly located in Jingjiang city. The temporal scan analysis results showed that the distribution of scrub typhus cases in Jiangsu province had obvious temporal clustering and cases occurred primarily from October to November in each year. The spatial scan analysis results showed that the distribution of cases had obvious spatial clustering; the spatial clustering areas during 2008-2017 had an expanding tendency from middle east to west, south, and north, and the radiation radius of the clustering areas and the number of covered districts or counties all reached the maximum during 2014-2016. Spatiotemporal scan analysis found one clustering area with high incidence from October 2013 to December 2017; its center was Jianhu county of Yancheng, and the radiation radius was 166.68 km (risk ratio=14.45, log-likelihood ratio=6 295.90, P<0.01). Conclusion The distribution of scrub typhus cases in Jiangsu province shows clustering in both dimensions of time and space, and the number of clustering areas with high incidence increases gradually. It should be considered to strengthen the monitoring of scrub typhus and the prevention and control of scrub typhus in key areas.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 237-243 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 8340KB] ( 34 )
244 WANG Yu-jiao, YAN Dong-ming, LI Gui-chang, XU Lei, YUE Yu-juan, WANG Jun, LU Liang, SUN Wan-wan, ZHOU Ruo-bing, MU Qun-zheng, LIU Qi-yong, LI Xing-zhou
Epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Pinggu district of Beijing, China, in 2008-2018
Objective To investigate the data on scrub typhus cases reported in Pinggu district of Beijing, China, in 2008-2018 and the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of scrub typhus. Methods The data on scrub typhus cases reported in 2008-2018 were collected from the information system of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus. Results A total of 899 scrub typhus cases were reported in Pinggu district in 2008-2018, with a mean annual incidence rate of 18.70/100 000. The incidence rate of scrub typhus increased from 2008 to 2015 and then gradually decreased. Of all cases, 99.33% were reported in September to November of each year, suggesting that Pinggu district was an autumn-type epidemic area for this disease. This disease was mainly reported in patients aged 50-65 years, accounting for 52.73% of all cases. The disease was most prevalent among farmers, accounting for 77.20% of all cases. The highest incidence rate was found in Wangxinzhuang town and Daxingzhuang town. Conclusion There is a high incidence rate of scrub typhus in Pinggu district. Therefore, the key populations should be monitored in autumn and prevention and intervention measures should be adopted to reduce the development and prevalence of scrub typhus.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 244-247 [Abstract] ( 16 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 715KB] ( 30 )
248 LI Sa, WANG Rui-qin, CAI Xu, JIN Wen-jun, LIU Zhong-cheng, TANG Ya-qing, TIAN Li-li
Seroepidemiological survey and risk factors analysis of scrub typhus in Changping district of Beijing, China

Objective To investigate the current infection status of scrub typhus and the risk factors for scrub typhus in Changping district of Beijing, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control strategies of scrub typhus. Methods The residents from 8 towns in Changping district were randomly selected to conduct a seroepidemiological survey from October to December, 2017. The risk factors for scrub typhus were analyzed. Independent chi-square test, stratified chi-square test, and trend chi-square test were used to analyze the infection rate between groups. Results A total of 480 serum samples were tested in this survey, of which 55 were positive for scrub typhus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody and the positive rate was 11.45%; there were significant differences in the positive rate between patients with different ages (χ2=57.712, P<0.001), education levels (χ2=35.257, P<0.001), and different occupations (χ2=17.222, P<0.001) and those in different regions (χ2=69.469, P<0.001). For farmers and serving officers, field work and walking or sitting on grass were risk factors for scrub typhus, respectively (odds ratio[OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval[CI]:1.31-6.98; OR=3.18, 95%CI:1.07-9.46); spraying insect repellent and bathing or changing clothes after going out were protective factors, respectively (OR=0.45, 95%CI:0.21-0.98; OR=0.48, 95%CI:0.25-0.93). Conclusion The covert infection cases of scrub typhus are present in Changping district of Beijing, with significant population and regional differences, suggesting that it is necessary to strengthen surveillance, prevention, and control of scrub typhus and carry out further investigations.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 248-251 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 748KB] ( 28 )
252 LIAO Yong, HUANG Ren-fa, HU Xiao-jun, GUO Jun, LI Jian-hua, WU Min, HUANG Hong-shan, XU Jian-min
An investigation of host animals and vector of scrub typhus in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province, China
Objective To investigate the natural hosts of scrub typhus and the parasitism status on their body surface in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of scrub typhus in the area. Methods In Ganzhou, the host animals were captured in four surveillance sites (Yudu, Xunwu, Ganxian, and Shangyou counties) from September to October in each of 2015 and 2016 using the trap-at-night method. The species of the hosts was identified. The chigger mites on their body surface were subjected to comb inspection to identify the species and calculate chigger index. Results A total of 429 small animals (7 species) were captured, with a capture rate of 8.95%. Of the 7 species, Rattus losea was the dominant species, accounting for 51.75%. There were 188 host animals with chigger mites, and the host animals with chigger mites were mostly R. losea, with an overall chigger infestation rate of 43.82%. The chigger infestation rate was higher in Apodemus agrarius, R. norvegicus, and R. losea. A total of 2 875 chigger mites were captured, with a chigger index of 6.70, and R. norvegicus, A. agrarius, and R. losea had a higher chigger index. The species identification of parasitic mites in the 188 host animals showed that there were 5 species of chigger mites, and Leptotrombidium deliense was the dominant species, accounting for 61.70%. Conclusion Ganzhou is possibly a natural focus of scrub typhus, and the dominant host animal and vector are R. losea and L. deliense, respectively. It is necessary to conduct etiological and epidemiological study for the confirmation and futher evidences on the prevention and control of scrub typhus.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 252-254 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 381KB] ( 48 )
255 LI Gui-chang, LI Yong-xiang, CHEN Chuan-wei, LIU Ji-qi, LUO Yun-dong, ZHOU Tuan-jie, SHEN Yang, JIANG Zhi-li, GUO Yu-hong, SONG Xiu-ping, WANG Jun, WANG Yu-jiao, ZHAO Ning, LI Dong-mei, LIU Jing-li, LU Liang, LIU Qi-yong
An investigation of natural focus of scrub typhus in Yongcheng, Henan province, China
Objective To investigate the species compositions of rodents and the chigger mites on their body surface and the infection rate of Orientia tsutsugamushi in rodents in Yongcheng, Henan province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of scrub typhus in Yongcheng. Methods Rat traps were used to capture rodents and to collect ectoparasites from the body surface of rodents in different survey sites and different habitats in Yongcheng in October 2017. Nested PCR was used to detect nucleic acid of O. tsutsugamushi. The rodent density, chigger infestation rate, chigger index, and pathogen infection rate were calculated. Results A total of 110 rodents were captured with a capture rate of 12.21%. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 90.00%. A total of 1 249 chigger mites were collected from rodents. The chigger infestation rate and chigger index were relatively high in the forest along the riverbank, wetland, and mountain forest. Leptotrombidium scutellare (96.86%) was the dominant chigger mite species, which was mainly parasitic on the body surface of A. agrarius. The O. tsutsugamushi positive rate of rodent was 10.48%. Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus were detected O. tsutsugamushi positive with nPCR. Orientia tsutsugamushi in Yongcheng belonged to Kawasaki molecular type. Conclusion This study confirms that there are some epidemic foci of scrub typhus with host rodents in Yongcheng, which have the same hosts and vectors as the surrounding epidemic foci of scrub typhus.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 255-258 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 3434KB] ( 32 )
 
Original Reports
259 XUE Zhi-jing, WANG Jun, SONG Xiu-ping, LI Dong-mei, ZHAO Ning, YAN Dong-ming, LIANG Wen-qin, ZHOU Jing-zhu, WANG Dan, ZHANG Rui-ling, ZHANG Zhong, LIU Qi-yong
An investigation of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in different regions of Guizhou province, China, in 2018
Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito species and mosquito-borne viruses in different regions of Guizhou province, China, and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using mosquito lamps in Liping, Congjiang county, Huaxi, and Wudang district in Guizhou province in August 2018. Virus species were identified by molecular biology methods and the sequences of newly isolated viruses were analyzed using bioinformatics software. Results A total of 17 018 mosquitoes belonging to 3 genera and 4 species were collected from the above four sites in Guizhou province, including Culex tritaeniorhynchus (34.0%), Cx. pipiens pallens (2.3%), Anopheles sinensis (24.7%), and Armigeres subalbatus (39.0%). Among these species, Ar. subalbatus was the most collected one. Two strains of viruses were isolated from mosquito specimens and identified by molecular biology. The virus strain GZWK isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus belonged to genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and the virus strain GZWA isolated from Ar. subalbatus belonged to genotype Ⅲ JEV. Conclusion Armigeres subalbatus was the dominant species in the regions investigated in Guizhou, and the Japanese encephalitis virus was also isolated in the study. The GZWK strain has a close phylogenetic relationship with the genotype I JEV VN105 strain from Vietnam, and the GZWA strain has a close phylogenetic relationship with the genotype Ⅲ JEV FJ0339 strain from Fujian province, China.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 259-263 [Abstract] ( 22 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 762KB] ( 34 )
268 GE Jun-qi, LI Xue-yuan, GONG Zheng-da, MA Yong-kang, ZHANG Hong-jiang, HE Fu-rong, ZHANG Zheng
Study on the barrier effect of rivers on the spread of rodent plague in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, China
Objective To investigate the barrier effect of rivers on the spread of rodent plague. Methods The data of the rodent plague foci in Dehong autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province, China, from January 1982 to December 2007 were collected. The numbers of townships and plague foci with rodent plague were recorded in each county (city) and in each of the three regions divided by the Daying River and Longchuan River (national borders-Daying River, Daying River- Longchuan River, and Longchuan River-prefecture borders) in each year. The epidemic intensity values of five counties (cities) and three regions were calculated according to the entropy index and adjusted for area size. The difference in adjusted epidemic intensity between the five counties (cities) or the three regions were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results During 1982-2007, in Yingjiang, Lianghe, Longchuan, Ruili, and Mangshi, rodent plague was epidemic for 16, 11, 19, 11, and 10 years, respectively, and the numbers of plague foci were 159, 96, 93, 76, and 35, respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall distribution of adjusted epidemic intensity between the five counties (H=8.277, P=0.082). In the three regions (national borders-Daying River, Daying River-Longchuan River, and Longchuan River-prefecture borders), plague was epidemic for 16, 25, and 10 years, respectively, and the numbers of plague foci were 103, 321, and 35, respectively. There was a significant difference in the overall distribution of adjusted epidemic intensity between the three regions (H=19.738, P=0.000), and significant differences were also observed between the region from Longchuan River to Daying River and the region from national borders to Daying River or the region from Longchuan River to prefecture borders (χ2=18.423, P=0.003; χ2=26.692, P=0.000). Conclusion Rivers may have a barrier effect on the spread of rodent plague in Dehong prefecture, which may be related to the effects of rivers on the geographical distribution of Yersinia pestis and the community, population and distribution of the host and vector fleas of Y. pestis.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 268-271 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 567KB] ( 22 )
272 SUN Wan-wan, LIU Xiao-bo, WU Hai-xia, WANG Jun, LIU Qi-yong, LU Liang
Hysteresis effect of temperature on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Huludao and Dandong, China: A study based on distributed lag non-linear model
Objective To investigate the hysteresis effect of temperature on the risk of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Dandong and Huludao, Liaoning province, China. Methods The incidence data of HFRS reported in Dandong and Huludao from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2017 and the meteorological data of the same period were collected. The distributed lag non-linear model was used to analyze the hysteresis effect of ambient temperature on the incidence of HFRS after controling the influence of long-term trend and. Results The high temperature effect on the incidence of HFRS in Huludao was present from the time of exposure to week 12 after exposure. However, it was present in Dandong from about week 8 to week 12 after exposure with a lag time of 8 weeks. The effect of low temperature on the incidence of HFRS in Huludao appeared immediately after exposure and disappeared at about week 10 after exposure. However, it also appeared appeared immediately in Dandong and lasted to week 12 after exposure. The high and low ambient temperatures both showed positive effect on the incidence of HFRS in the two cities. Conclusion Both high temperature and low temperature can increase the risk of HFRS in the two cities. The hysteresis effect of temperature on HFRS is different between the two cities.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 272-277 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 2919KB] ( 27 )
278 HU Quan-bo, CHEN Shu-hong, SUN Wei, XU Jun, HUA Hua, YANG Ming, LI Ji-hong, ZHOU Guang-en
Monitoring of epidemic situation of host animals of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Heilongjiang province, China, in 2014-2016
Objective To predict the prevalence trend of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Heilongjiang province, through monitoring of the epidemic situation of HFRS host animals from 2014 to 2016, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of prevention and control plans. Methods The trap-at-night method was used to catch rats from 10 monitoring points in fields and villages in Heilongjiang province from 2014 to 2016. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect Hantavirus (HV) antigen in rodent lungs and HV antibody in rodent serum. Data and statistical analysis process by using Excel 2016 and SPSS 19.0 software. Results In Heilongjiang province from 2014 to 2016, 131 732 rodent clips were placed at 10 monitoring points, and 9 270 rats were captured. The mean density of rats was 7.04%, with 7.01% in fields and 7.09% in villages; there was no significant difference (χ2=1.734, P=0.420). Nine species of rodents were captured in three years, and the dominant species were Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus. The mean infection rate was 1.79 times the virus-carrying rate (10.19% vs 5.68%). The virus-carrying rate and infection rate of R. norvegicus (9.63% and 13.88%, respectively) were higher than those of A. agrarius (3.16% and 8.14%, respectively). Conclusion HFRS host animals have a high population density, biodiversity, and high virus-carrying rate and infection rate in Heilongjiang province. The mean virus-carrying rate and infection rate of R. norvegicus in 2014-2016 was higher than those of A. agrarius. In order to further reduce the incidence of HFRS in this province, it is necessary to strengthen monitoring of host animals and to implement rodent control and the national project for expanding the immunization against HFRS.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 278-280 [Abstract] ( 15 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 503KB] ( 26 )
286 LI Dong-mei, LIANG Yan-lin, SONG Xiu-ping, ZHU Cai-ying, KANG Yang
Evaluation of Chelex 100 resin method for rapid extraction of genomic DNA from animal tissues
Objective To compare Chelex 100 resin method (six different processing procedures) with the commercial automated magnetic bead-based DNA purification method (the standard method for DNA extraction) for the extraction of genomic DNA from animal tissues, and to identify a simple and rapid method for on-site testing of genomic DNA from animal tissue samples. Methods An appropriate amount of rodent liver tissue was ground or cut prior to adding 5% Chelex 100 resin suspension. The mixture of homogenized tissue with 5% Chelex 100 resin suspension was treated according to six different processing procedures of lysis and adsorption. After centrifugation or static treatment, the concentration and purity of genomic DNA in supernatant were measured. Using the genomic DNA as the templates, the primers of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for rodents, the universal primers for Bartonella spp. and the TaqMan probe were used to amplify the COI gene fragment and the tmRNA gene fragment of Bartonella spp.. The concentration and purity of genomic DNA and the quantification cycle (Cq) value were compared between the six processing procedures based on Chelex 100 resin as well as between the Chelex 100 resin method and the magnetic bead method. Results The concentration of the DNA templates obtained using the six different processing procedures (C1-C6) based on Chelex 100 resin ranged from 203.93 ng/μl to 769.86 ng/μl, which was higher than that obtained using the magnetic bead method. The A260/A280 ratios of DNA templates extracted using the Chelex 100 resin method and the magnetic bead method ranged from 1.25 to 1.47 and 1.85 to 1.95, respectively. There was no difference in A260/A280 ratio between the C1-C6 based on Chelex 100 resin, but the purity of DNA templates extracted using the Chelex 100 resin method was lower than that of DNA templates extracted using the magnetic bead method. The electrophoretograms showed that the bands of the DNA templates extracted using the magnetic bead method were more distinct than those extracted using the Chelex 100 resin method and there was a clear and accurate band for amplification product of the COⅠ gene. The quantitative real-time PCR amplification results showed that the DNA templates obtained using the Chelex 100 resin method had a normal Cq value, which was slightly higher than that of the DNA templates obtained using the magnetic bead method. Conclusion The Chelex 100 resin method for extracting genomic DNA of animal tissues is simple and efficient, which is suitable for conventional PCR and TaqMan fluorescent probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay to identify host animal species and directly detect pathogens in animal tissue samples.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 286-291 [Abstract] ( 21 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1218KB] ( 38 )
292 LIU Hong-xia, LIU Yao, XU Jin-qiu, LENG Pei-en
Biochemical characteristics of glutathione s-transferases from the pyriproxyfen-resistant and susceptible populations of Culex pipiens pallens
Objective To preliminarily explore the resistance mechanism of pyriproxyfen-resistant Culex pipiens pallens by comparing the biochemical characteristics of glutathione s-transferases (GSTs) between resistant and susceptible populations of Cx. pipiens pallens. Methods The pyriproxyfen-resistant and susceptible populations of Cx. pipiens pallens were chosen through indoor successive selection as the research objects. And the activities of GSTs were determined according to the method reported by Habig et al. (1976). Statistical analysis was thus performed using the t-test for sample mean comparison. Results The optimal substrate of GSTs from Cx. pipiens pallens was 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). When CDNB was used as the substrate, the activities of GSTs in the resistant and susceptible populations were 3.626×10-4 and 2.737×10-4 nmol/mg protein·min, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of Cx. pipiens pallens GSTs increased with the elevation of substrate concentrations[i.e., CDNB and DCNB (1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene)]. In a certain concentration range, the hydrolytic activity of GSTs in the resistant population was slightly higher than that in the susceptible population towards both substrates. When CDNB was used as the substrate, the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum reaction rate (Vmax) of GSTs in the resistant population were 8.01 mmol/L and 4.87×102 μmol/min·mg, respectively, while those in the susceptible population were 1.11 mmol/L and 3.87×102 μmol/min·mg, respectively. There were significant differences between these two populations regarding Km and Vmax (ta=11.415, tb=6.411, all P<0.05). When DCNB was used as the substrate, there was no significant difference between the two populations regarding Km and Vmax of GSTs (tc=0.134, td=1.280, all P>0.05). Conclusion GSTs may play an antidotal and metabolic role in the formation of pyriproxyfen resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 292-295 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 556KB] ( 23 )
296 SONG Xiao, CHENG Peng, LYU Ye-yuan, SHI Qi-qi, LIU Hong-mei, WANG Hai-fang, LIU Li-juan, GUO Xiu-xia, ZHANG Chong-xing, ZHAO Yu-qiang, WANG Huai-wei, GONG Mao-qing
Efficacy of chemical insecticide mixture and biological insecticides against Culex pipiens pallens in Jining, China
Objective To explore the efficacy of a mixture of common chemical insecticides and biological insecticides against Culex pipiens pallens, and to provide a scientific basis for establishing reasonable and effective mosquito control measures. Methods The larval impregnation method and drug complex formulation method were applied to measure the resistance and synergistic coefficients of Cx. pipiens pallens against two biological insecticides and four chemical insecticides. Results The resistance coefficients of Cx. pipiens pallens against Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. sphaericus were 1.02 and 1.08 times, respectively, and the resistance coefficients against cypermethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, and propoxur were 97.00, 59.08, 6.44, and 2.36 times, respectively. The synergistic coefficient of deltamethrin+DDVP, deltamethrin+propoxur, cypermethrin+DDVP, and cypermethrin+propoxur were 156.24-182.37, 163.28- 201.36, 166.23-190.56, and 160.23-199.58, respectively. The synergistic effect of DDVP+ propoxur was not good. Conclusion Culex pipiens pallens in Jining city has developed varying degrees of resistance to common chemical insecticides, but is still sensitive to biological insecticides. It is suggested that biological insecticides or chemical insecticide mixtures be applied to control mosquito breeding and mitigate the development of insecticide resistance.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 296-299 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 526KB] ( 20 )
306 DAI Pei-fang, ZHAO Jun-ying, TIAN Xiao-dong, CHENG Jing-xia
An investigation of vector breeding sites in and around rural courtyards in Shanxi, China, during 2011-2017
Objective To investigate vector breeding sites in and around rural courtyards in Shanxi province, China, and to provide a basis for early warning, prevention, and control of rural vector-borne diseases. Methods Excel 2010 and SPSS 17.0 software were used to perform statistical summarizations and one-way analysis of variance of the investigation data of vector breeding sites in and around 100 rural courtyards in 20 villages in 5 townships in each of the 36 investigated counties in 11 cities in Shanxi province from 2011 to 2017. Results From 2011 to 2017, among the 9 types of vector breeding sites in and around rural courtyards across the province, the proportions of aqua privies and flushing toilets; firewood haystacks; garbage dumps; homes for cows, horses, and sheep; homes for chickens, ducks, and geese; pigsties; sewage ditches; stagnant water pools; and salvage stations were 70.80%, 32.18%, 29.36%, 12.68%, 13.57%, 8.41%, 5.49%, 0.75%, and 0.36%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the annual proportion between the above 9 types of vector breeding sites (except for homes for chickens, ducks, and geese) in and around the rural courtyards (P>0.05), but a significant difference was observed in the proportion of poultry homes between 2012 and 2015 (F=1.492, P=0.005). There were significant differences between 11 cities in the proportion of all types of vector breeding sites (P<0.05). Conclusion The types and distribution of vector breeding sites in and around the rural courtyards in Shanxi province were complex. It is necessary to take some effective measures to prevent and control vector-borne diseases, which include refining the rural living environment, increasing the awareness of disease prevention among the inhabitants, improving their hygienic habits, and reducing the number of and even eliminating vector breeding sites.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 306-310 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 5514KB] ( 24 )
 
264 XIE Lyu, LIN An-qi, WANG Jian, WU Chao, LUO Yan, YU Ai-shui, CHEN Ran, YANG Bo, XIE Xiao-lu, LI Chun-min, LI Zhi-jiao, ZHU Huai-min, JIANG Jin-yong
An investigation of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens in the southwest border regions of Yunnan province, China

Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito vectors and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in the southwest border regions of Yunnan province, China, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of such diseases. Methods From 2013 to 2015, the methods of mosquito lamp and human landing collection were used to collect mosquitoes in Dai-Lahu-Va Autonomous County of Menglian, Menghai, and Hani-Yi Autonomous County of Jiangcheng of Yunnan. A kit was used to extract DNA and RNA, and RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing were used to obtain the gene sequence of pathogens. Biological software including Clustal X1.83, DNASTAR 7.1, and MEGA 5.0 were used for nucleotide sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis. Results A total of 126 893 mosquitoes of 39 species in 10 genera were collected, among which there were 104 476 Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes (82.33%), 18 422 Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes (14.52%), 1 212 Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (1.00%), and 891 Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (0.70%). Two strains of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and Plasmodium, filaria, and other flaviviruses were not detected. Conclusion There are various vector mosquitoes in the border regions of Yunnan. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. sinensis are dominant species in the local area. The isolated JEV suggest that the virus be prevalen in the southwest border regions of Yunnan, and therefore, the monitoring of key vector mosquitos should be enhanced.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 264-267 [Abstract] ( 19 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 537KB] ( 36 )
281 ZHU Dan, LIU Qin, ZHANG Yi, LI Yuan-yuan, WU Jia-tong
Laboratory rearing and observation on the biological characteristics of Triatoma rubrofasciata

Objective To establish a set of standard techniques and methods for laboratory rearing of Triatoma rubrofasciata, and to provide a reference for understanding the life cycle and molecular biological characteristics of T. rubrofasciata, the diseases transmitted by T. rubrofasciata, and the prevention and control of these diseases. Methods Triatoma rubrofasciatawas artificially fed in an incubator with a constant temperature of (28±1)℃ and a relative humidity of (70±5)% under the laboratory condition of light for 12 hours and darkness for 12 hours. Kunming rats were used as the sole blood-feeding animal. Results Triatoma rubrofasciatacompleted the whole life cycle (126-153 days) under the artificial rearing condition. Stage I-V nymphs and adults all were fed with the blood of rats. Conclusion The reproduction of T. rubrofasciata is successfully carried out by laboratory rearing.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 281-285 [Abstract] ( 15 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 8895KB] ( 26 )
300 SONG Nuan, HUANG Zhen-dong, XUE Zhi-jing, WAN Qing, ZHUANG Gui-fen, ZHANG Rui-ling, XU Yong-yu, ZHANG Zhong
Effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride on the individual growth and development and population reproduction of Musca domestica

Objective To investigate the effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride on the individual growth and development and population reproduction of Musca domestica. Methods The newly laid eggs of M. domestica were placed on the filter paper soaped with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride or sterile water (control). The hatching rates of the eggs were observed. The hatched larvae were fed with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride or without ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (control). The development of M. domestica was observed every day and the developmental durations of egg stage, larval stage, and pupal stage were calculated. The male and female adults emerged from ciprofloxacin pupae and control pupae were paired. The ciprofloxacin adults were fed with brown sugar (nutrients) and sterile water with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin, while the control adults were fed with brown sugar (nutrients) and sterile water (control). The pre-oviposition period, number of eggs laid per female, and lifetime of adults were calculated. The age-stage, two-sex life table software was used to calculate the age-stage survival rate, fertility, number of eggs laid per female, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate of M. domestica and to evaluate the effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride on the individual growth and development and population reproduction of M. domestica. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 software. Comparison between groups was made by one-way analysis of variance and comparison between two independent samples was made by the t test. Results The developmental durations of egg stage and pupal stage in 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% ciprofloxacin groups were 1 day and 6 days, respectively. There were no significant differences in the durations of egg stage and pupal stage between the three ciprofloxacin groups and the control group (all P>0.05). The duration of larval stage in the control group and the three ciprofloxacin groups were 5.80±0.09 days and 8.44±0.06 days, respectively, and there was a significant difference in the duration of larval stage between the control group and the three ciprofloxacin groups (F=40.927, P=0.000). The lifetime of female adults and male adults in the control group vs the three ciprofloxacin groups were 28.39±0.92 days vs 17.19±0.85 days and 26.27±1.12 days vs 17.31±0.98 days, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the lifetime of female adults and male adults between the control group and the three ciprofloxacin groups (female:F=20.091, P=0.000; male:F=14.218, P=0.000). The pre-oviposition period of female adults and the number of eggs laid per female in the control group vs the three ciprofloxacin groups were 4.94±0.10 days vs 6.37±0.33 days and 638.76±39.32 vs 137.37±24.22, respectively, and there was a significant difference between the control group and the three ciprofloxacin groups (F=28.336, P=0.000). The age-stage, two-sex life table study showed that the hatching rates of M. domestica eggs, mortality rates in the whole life cycle, life expectancy of newly laid eggs, and life expectancy of female adults in the control group vs the three ciprofloxacin groups were 96.43% vs 68.75%, 15.48% vs 46.09%, 36.07 days vs 18.03 days, and 32.03 days vs 19.88 days, respectively. From the perspective of population ecology, the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate in the control group vs the three ciprofloxacin groups were 0.23 vs 0.13, 1.26 vs 1.14, and 258.55 vs 28.98, respectively. Conclusion After feeding with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, the individual development of M. domestica is retarded, fertility is decreased, and population growth rate is significantly inhibited.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 300-305 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1195KB] ( 19 )
 
Taxonomy and Fauna of Vectors Report Series
311 DUOJI Zhuo-ma, LI Hai-dong, YONG Jian, YANG Xiao-dong, ZHUOMA Yang-jin, WANG Jian, YANG Gui-rong, GUO Yu-hong, ZHOU Hong-ning, GONG Zheng-da
Taxonomy and fauna of Culicidae in Tibet V. First discovery of the subgenus Diceromyia and the species whartoni of Aedes in China
Objective To investigate the fauna of mosquitoes in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Methods From August to September, 2017, investigation and sampling, specimen preparation, and taxonomic identification were performed for mosquito larvae in various types of breeding sites in southeastern Tibet. Results A batch of specimens of the genus Aedes were collected in Motuo county, Linzhi. Among them, Aedes (Diceromyia) whartoni Mattingly, 1965 was identified. The subgenus and species, which were first found in Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan province, were a new record of subgenus and species in China. This article briefly describes and reports the main morphological characteristics, geographical distribution, breeding environment, and male terminalia structure of the subgenus Diceromyia and the species whartoni of Aedes. Conclusion Up to now, 16 species of Aedes are known in Tibet.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 311-313 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1171KB] ( 18 )
 
Biology and Ecology
314 LIANG Hui-jie, LIU Guo-ping, ZHANG Yan-qing
A new species of Culicoides (Oecacta) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Luobei, Heilongjiang, China
This paper reports Culicoides (Oecacta) fengxiangensis Liang, Liu et Zhang sp. nov. from Luobei county, Heilongjiang province, China. The new species is similar to C.(O.) subfascipennis Kieffer, 1919. However, the latter has the following characteristics:the pale spot in the middle of M2 cell is connected with the pale spot in the r-m, and the pale spot in the basal portion of anal cell is connected with the pale spot in the wing base; the rear edge of the ninth sternum in the male terminalia is arc-shaped, there are microchaeta on the membrane, the rear edge of the ninth tergum is widely dented, and the aedeagus is nearly arc-shaped. The model specimens of the new species are kept in the North Command Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Shenyang 110034).
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 314-316 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 708KB] ( 36 )
 
Policy and Standard
317 JI Heng-qing
Interpretation of the group standard in Procedures for assessment of pest control service quality
Objective To help the readers better understand and apply the group standard in Procedures for assessment of pest control service quality (T/CPCACN0001-2018). Methods We evaluated and analyzed the current status of pest control operation (PCO) in China according to the information obtained during development of this standard. Results We discussed the background and process of the development of the standard, the contents of the standard, and the potential problems and prospects of its implementation. Conclusion Although there are various problems and difficulties during the implementation of this standard, the quality assessment of pest control service will be performed widely with social and economic development and the continuous standardization of PCO. The release and implementation of this standard will play a leading role in the quality assessment of pest control service.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 317-319 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 568KB] ( 36 )
 
Investigation
320 LIU Wei-jun, XIAO Fang-zhen, LIN Si-xian, HAN Teng-wei, ZHOU Shu-heng, DENG Yan-qin
An investigation of rodents infected with Borrelia burgdorferi in five counties (cities) of Fujian province, China

Objective To preliminarily explore the infection status and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in parts of Fujian province. Methods Rodents were captured by the cage method in 5 counties (cities), i.e., Shaowu, Gutian, Shishi, Minhou, and Changle from April 2017 to June 2018. Nucleic acids were then extracted from rodent tissue samples (e.g., liver and kidney). After that, the fragments of 5S-23S rRNA were amplified by nested PCR, and sequencing results were analyzed by MEGA 6.0 software. Results A total of 192 rodents were captured, of which 81 were commensal rodents, accounting for 42.19% (81/192), and 111 wild rodents, accounting for 57.81% (111/192). Among all the rodents, four were detected to be positive for Lyme, accounting for 2.08% (4/192). Of the Lyme-positive rodents, one was commensal rodent, accounting for 1.23% (1/81) of all the commensal ones, and three wild rodents, accounting for 2.70% (3/111). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that SW14 from Shaowu and SS53 from Shishi were both B. valaisiana. The gene sequences of the two strains were identical or highly similar to those of B. valaisiana isolate R48 (EU160458.2) and B. valaisiana isolate 11 (JX888445.1), respectively. The gene sequences of both the SW15 from Shaowu and the GT38 from Gutian were different from those of above-mentioned B. valaisiana. Conclusion Rodents carry B. burgdorferi in the five surveyed counties (cities). The genotype (i.e., B. valaisiana) is consistent with that in the surrounding provinces.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 320-323 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 595KB] ( 12 )
324 DU Guo-yi, YAN Dong, SHI Xian-ming, YUAN Yu-ming, WANG Zhi-yu, ZHOU Song, LIU Guan-chun, CHEN Yong-ming
Discussion on the experience in dealing with animal plague epidemic in Hebei province, China
Objective To explore the handling experience in the animal plague epidemic area in Hebei province, China. Methods Based on the main measure rat and flea control in the animal plague epidemic area of Hebei province from 2017 to 2018, the handling effectiveness and significance were summarized and analyzed. Results A total of 350.0 kg poisonous rodent bait and 2 495.6 kg deratization fumigant were dropped in the animal epidemic area of Hebei province. The examined rodent density in the epidemic area was 0 inds/hm2. The animal plague epidemic was effectively controlled and did not affect humans. Conclusion The integrated measure based on rat and flea control can effectively control and prevent the human plague risk in the animal plague epidemic area in Hebei province, China.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 324-326 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 1048KB] ( 17 )
327 HE Ya-ming, LI Hong, JI Heng-qing, ZHANG Lin, ZHANG Xing, GAN Peng
An investigation of potential plague foci in Yunyang county, Chongqing, China, in 2018
Objective To investigate the populations and carried pathogens of plague-related host animals and vector fleas in Yunyang county of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and to understand the potential risk of plague occurrence in this region. Methods In April 2018, an investigation was conducted in the cultivated land and residential areas of Yunyang county, Chongqing. Rodents were captured by cage trapping method. Rodents and parasitic fleas collected by comb inspection were identified. Rodent blood was collected for serological testing. Results A total of 8 species of rodents were captured, the total rodent density was 2.52%, capture rate. The indoor and outdoor dominant species were Rattus tanezumi and Apodemus agrarius, respectively. The flea-carrying rate was 50.46% and the total flea index was 4.24, with the dominant flea species Leptopsylla segnis. The free flea index was 0.001. The plague serum antibody was not detected. Conclusion There might be a risk of local epizootic risk with imported plague in Yunyang county of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, since there exists plague host animal and vector fleas. It implies the need for epizootic plague surveillance program in the county.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 327-330 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 563KB] ( 21 )
331 GUI You-jun, WANG Qi-guo, LUO Tao, MAITUOHUTI Abulimiti, ABUDUREXITI Abulikemu, WANG Xin-hui, WANG Cheng, BAOKAIXI Guliayi, ZHANG Xiao-bing, LI Bing, LI Wei
Surveillance and analysis of animal plague epidemic in Guertu town, Usu city, Xinjiang from 2006 to 2010
Objective To investigate the prevalence of animal plague in Marmota baibacina-Spermophilus undulatus natural focus and provide basis for prevention and control of plague. Methods Surveillance was carried out on the density of S. undulatus and M. baibacina in Guertu between 2006 and 2010 according to the rule of plague prevention and surveillance in Xinjiang. The four-step test was performed for inspect visceral organs and body fleas of S. undulatus. Indirect hemagglutination assay was used to detect F1 antibody in the serum of S. undulatus and shepherd dogs. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 software according to animal plague epidemiology. Results The mean density of S. undulatus and M. baibacina in Guertu plague focus between 2006 and 2010 were 14.64/hm2 and 0.61/hm2, respectively. The rate of carrying flea was 90.72% and the mean flea index was 7.09. The serological test showed that 130 were positive for F1 antibody among 2 532 serum samples of S. undulatus, and 8 were positive for F1 antibody among 132 serum samples of shepherd dogs. A total of 67 strains of Yersinia pestis were isolated from S. undulatus and its body fleas. Conclusion The plague among S. undulatus in Xinjiang has been prevalent for many years, and human beings might be infected. Thus, surveillance should be performed actively and publicity should be also carried out at the same time.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 331-333 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 394KB] ( 23 )
334 DENG Ze-jing, NI Chao-rong, LI Wan-cang, CHEN Luo-luo, ZHU Zi-fu, NI Qing-xiang, LIN Xian-dan
An investigation of resistance of Musca domestica to five common insecticides in Wenzhou, Zhejiang
Objective To investigate the resistance of Musca domestica to five common insecticides in Wenzhou, China, and to provide a basis for scientific and rational use of insecticides and development of targeted prevention and control measures. Methods From May to October, 2017, M. domestica adults were collected from each monitoring site in Wenzhou and were then brought to the insectary for breeding. The micro-drip method was used to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of permethrin, deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, and propoxur for M. domestica. Results The LD50 of permethrin, deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, and propoxur was 0.425 3, 0.262 6, 3.281 8, 9.667 9, and >48 μg/♀, respectively. Compared with the LD50 of sensitive lines, the resistance ratios were 39.38, 291.78, 911.61, 213.42, and >161.45 times, respectively. Conclusion Musca domestica in the monitoring sites has developed a high level of resistance to common insecticides, and there has been a significant increase in resistance in recent years. Therefore, scientific management and technical guidance for the use of insecticides should be strengthened.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 334-336 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 430KB] ( 28 )
337 QI Yun-peng, FU Xiao-fei, ZHA Yi-wei, XIANG Ze-lin, ZHOU Wan-ling, HOU Zhi-gang, GU Wei-ling
Study on resistance of main vectors to commonly used insecticides in Jiaxing, China

Objective To investigate the resistance status of Blattella germanica, Aedes albopictus, and Musca domestica to commonly used insecticides in Jiaxing, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of reasonable and effective prevention and control measures. Methods The residual film was used to determine the median knockdown time (KT50) of propoxur, beta-cypermethrin, dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP), deltamethrin, and acephate against B. germanica. The WHO standard test kits were used to measure the mortality of Ae. albopictus at diagnostic doses of propoxur, beta- cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and malathion. Micro-topical application was used to determine the median lethal doses (LD50) of propoxur, beta-cypermethrin, DDVP, deltamethrin, and permethrin against M. domestica. Results Blattella germanica showed moderate resistance to deltamethrin and DDVP, with resistance ratios of 8.21 and 5.33, respectively, showed low resistance to beta-cypermethrin, with a resistance ratio of 4.31, and was sensitive to propoxur and acephate, with resistance ratios of 1.58 and 1.05, respectively. The mortality rates of Ae. albopictus to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin were 100%, 100%, and 98.67%, respectively, indicating that Ae. albopictus was sensitive to these insecticides. However, its mortality rates to malathion and propoxur were 97.33% and 90.67%, respectively, suggesting possible resistance. Musca domestica demonstrated moderate resistance to DDVP (resistance ratio:10.47), low resistance to deltamethrin (8.22) and permethrin (8.13), and sensitivity to propoxur and beta-cypermethrin. Conclusion As shown from the resistance criteria, B. germanica, Ae. albopictus, and M. domestica in Jiaxing have different degrees of resistance to commonly used insecticides. Therefore, surveillance of insecticide resistance should be highlighted for rational use of insecticides.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 337-340 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 528KB] ( 32 )
341 WANG Gui-an, MA Xiao, YANG Si-jia, SUN Bin, MA Min, CHEN Xiao-ying, XU Guo-zhang
An analysis of the density monitoring results of Aedes mosquitoes in Ningbo, China, in 2017
Objective To investigate the density and seasonal fluctuation trend of Aedes mosquitoes in Ningbo, China, and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of Aedes-borne diseases. Methods From April to November, 2017, the double-layered mosquito net (DLMN) method and the Breteau index (BI) method were used to survey the adults and larvae of Aedes mosquitoes in residential areas, parks, and waste stations in the counties (cities and districts) of Ningbo. And the seasonal fluctuation trends of Aedes mosquitoes were analyzed. Results The mean net trap index of Aedes mosquitoes in Ningbo was 1.18 mosquitoes/net·hour, and the index was highest in September. Among all the above-mentioned habitats, the parks had the highest net trap index (1.23 mosquitoes/net·hour). The mean BI in surveillance area was 15.11, and the BI was highest (23.63) in September. Conclusion The risk of transmission of Aedes-borne diseases in Ningbo is high from June to September. Regarding the Aedes vector surveillance, using both DLMN and BI methods simultaneous can better assess the risk of dengue transmission.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 341-344 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 606KB] ( 25 )
345 DU Jun-long, GUO Qian-qiu, ZHAO Chang, ZHAO Qing-hua, HE Jian-han
Emergency monitoring and control of vectors after flood in Jintang county of Sichuan province, China
Objective To investigate the quantity, distribution, and occurrence dynamics of important vectors by emergency monitoring of vectors after flood in Jintang county of Sichuan province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the outbreak and prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases after flood. Methods On July 12, 2018, the first day after flood, the densities of flies and rodents were observed in the flooded areas of Jintang county. A mosquito lamp was used to observe the density of mosquitoes, and the rodent trace method was used to observe the density of rodents. Results Mosquitoes and flies were the key vectors for biological control. After sterilization, the mean density of mosquitoes was 1.78 mosquitoes/lamp·hour, the density of flies decreased from 29.30 flies/m2 to 6.44 flies/m2, and the mean density of rodents was 0.66 places/km. Environmental health was restored and the breeding sites of mosquitoes and files were effectively controlled. Conclusion By summarizing and analyzing the data of vector monitoring after flood, we can first clean up the important breeding garbage and carry out accurate insecticidal control to guide prevention and control, so as to effectively prevent and control the outbreak and prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 345-347 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 428KB] ( 24 )
348 CHEN Zhu-yun, XIE Han-guo, XIAO Li-zhen, OUYANG Rong, ZHANG Shan-ying
An investigation of malaria vector species in historical distribution areas of Anopheles lesteri in Fujian province, China
Objective To investigate the malaria vector species in the historical distribution areas of Anopheles lesteri in Fujian province, China, and to provide a basis for developing the measures of the prevention and control of malaria vectors for consolidating local malaria elimination. Methods The malaria vector species were investigated by the trapping method and the full search method during the season of mosquito activities (from May to October) in 2011-2017 in Nanping and Sanming, which were the historical distribution areas of An. lesteri in northwestern Fujian. Population density was monitored by the night trapping method with outdoor human-baited net at the monitoring sites of malaria vector in Nanping from June to October in 2014-2017. Results In 2011-2017, 3 006 An. sinensis mosquitoes were captured at 68 sites in 10 counties in Nanping and Sanming, but no An. lesteri was found. In 2014-2017, the mean biting rate was 4.33 mosquitoes/person·night at the monitoring sites in Nanping. Conclusion Anopheles sinensis is the only malaria vector found in the historical distribution areas of An. lesteri in northwestern Fujian. But its biting rate is still high. The malaria vector surveillance should be strengthened by the local health authority.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 348-349 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 414KB] ( 23 )
350 LI Lin, FAN Jun-jie, LIU Guo-jun, SUN Jian-yi
An investigation of the awareness of rodent control and prevention among rural residents in Weifang city, Shandong province, in 2016
Objective To investigate the awareness of basic knowledge of rodent control and prevention among rural residents in Weifang, China, and to provide a basis for developing and perfecting rodent control and deratization strategies in rural areas. Methods A random number table was used to select 630 residential households from the counties and districts of Weifang, and a questionnaire survey was conducted among these residents. The chi-square test was used for data analysis by SPSS 17.0 software. Results Of all residents, 60.0% reported that they still had rodents in their homes, and there was a significant difference in the survival of rodents between the counties and districts (χ2=69.126, P=0.000). The awareness rate of rodent control and prevention among these residents was 42.7%, and there was a significant difference in the awareness of rodent control and prevention among the counties and districts (χ2=154.521, P=0.000). There were also significant differences in the awareness of rodent harm and rodent-borne diseases and the awareness and use of rodent control and prevention measures between the counties and districts (all P<0.05). Conclusion There is a low awareness rate of standard rodent control and prevention measures among rural residents in Weifang, with poor implementation of standard rodent control and prevention measures.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 350-353 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 454KB] ( 19 )
 
Reader, Author, and Editor
354 DUAN Jiang-juan
A brief analysis on competitive advantages of academic journals of subordinate subjects
Objective To explore the survival way of academic journals under the current development mode of information era, especially the development orientation of journals of subordinate subjects. Methods The development of Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control in recent years were analyzed, and the successful utilization of information technology by this journal to realize the mode of "Internet+Periodicals" was also introduced. Results Mobile internet-based applications have promoted the development of Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control, and now this journal stands out among the journals of the same discipline, with a core impact factor of 0.991, well above the journals in the same field. This journal has been included in a number of databases, including Chemical Abstracts (CA) in the USA, Abstract Journal (AJ) in Russia, Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), China Core Journal Alternative Database, and Chinese Journal Full-text Database. Conclusion Mobile internet-based applications can significantly promote the development of academic journals, especially those printed journals of subordinate subjects whose development has difficulties due to the limitations of their disciplines. Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control has always adhered to the spirit of craftsmen, and has been rated as an excellent journal in the series of journals of Chinese Preventive Medicine Association for many years. Its impact factor and total citations rank among the top journals of the same discipline.
2019 Vol. 30 (3): 354-355 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 301KB] ( 22 )
 
Review
356 WU Jian-hua, LIU Mei-hong, LI Shuai-lan, ZOU Zheng-rong
Research advances in the mechanism of action of molluscicides in eliminating Oncomelania snails

Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and chemical control of the snails is an effective means to control the spread of schistosomiasis. Current research findings have shown that the mechanism of chemical control of the snails mainly includes the following aspects:(1) to cause nervous system dysfunction in O. hupensis by affecting the activities of key enzymes involved in nerve signal transduction and transmission, including acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, thus leading to death; (2) to cause disorders in energy metabolic pathways in O. hupensis by affecting the activities of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and energy supply, including succinodehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, thus leading to death; (3) to cause disorders in the liver defense system and even liver failure by affecting the activities of enzymes involved in liver detoxification function, including aminotransferases, phosphatase, and esterase isozyme, thus leading to poisoning and death. With a focus on the influence of molluscicides on the ultrastructure of vital organs including the liver and the activities of various key enzymes, this article elaborates on the mechanism of action of molluscicides in eliminating Oncomelania snails, in order to provide a reference for research and development of new molluscicides.

2019 Vol. 30 (3): 356-360 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML] ( ) [PDF 710KB] ( 19 )
Chines Journal of Vector Biology and Control






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